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BloodBank Test1 Voca

Blood Bank Test1 Vocabulary

QuestionAnswer
Immunology Study of the molecules, cells, organs and systems responsible for the recognition and disposal of foreign material.
Immunologists Scientists who study the ways the immune system can be advantageously manipulated to protect against or treat diseases.
Host invaded organism.
Pluripotential Cell a bone marrow cell capable of differentiation into many different cell types.
RES/ Mononuclear phagocytic system (MPS) a group of cells having in common the ability to sequester substances such as inert particles and vital dyes. Includes fibroblasts, macrophages, endothelial linings of liver, spleen, and bone marrow, and reticular cells of the lymphatic system.
Immunity Body’s defense or security against particular diseases – how it protects itself.
Antigen Foreign substance capable of eliciting an immune response and reacting specifically with the product of that response (an Antibody).
Antibody Immunoglobulin molecule produced in response to stimulation by a specific antigen and capable of responding to the antigen that elicited its production.
Antibody binds only with a specific portion of the antigen called the antigenic determinant or epitope. This specific binding can be described as “lock and key” a unique shape of the molecular structure that enables the antibody and antigen to fit together.
Macrophage clearance the ability of macrophages to remove antibody-coated cells via the Fc receptor.
MHC molecules Major histocompatibility complex molecules, either class I or class II (also called histocompatibility locus antigens (HLAs)).
Antigen-presenting cells (APCs) cells that process antigen into peptides and display complexes of MHC molecules and peptides on their surfaces.
Monocyte- macrophage Monocytes are phagocytic leukocytes produced in the bone marrow. Monocytes are transported to the tissues, such as lung, liver and spleen, where they develop into macrophages.
T lymphocytes (T cells) Thymus-dependent lymphocytes that originate from lymphoid stem cells, differentiate under the influence of thymus hormones, are characterized by cell-surface antigens, and are primarily responsible for cell-mediated immunity. (CD4 and CD8 cells important
B lymphocytes (B cells) Bursa-dependent lymphocytes that are the precursors of antibody-producing plasma cells and are primarily involved in humoral immunity. B-cell maturation takes place predominantly in the bone marrow, and the cells are characterized by the presence of sur
Apoptosis a mechanism of controlled death in which cells are induced to degrade themselves from within.
Isotype switching a change in isotype expression by B cells from IgM to IgG secretion with continuous antigen stimulation.
Natural killer (NK) cells the population of lymphocytes that carry neither T nor B cell markers. (azurophilic granules)
Innate Immunity the nonspecific ability of the host to respond to injury or potential infection.
Adaptive Immunity the ability of the immune system to specifically respond to antigenic challenge
T-cell receptors highly variable antigen receptors of T cells usually made up of ∂ and β subunits.
Immunogenicity the degree to which an antigen is capable of eliciting an immune response
Antigenic determinant/ epitope that portion of the antigen molecule with which antibody can combine.
Immunodominant group the portion of the epitope or antigenic determinant that binds most strongly with the antibody. The immunodominant group gives the antigen its specificity.
Cross-reactivity the quality of broad specificity and the ability to react with more than one antigenic determinant or epitope.
Exogenous outside
Endogenous inside
Allogeneic/ homologous referring to antigens that are from the same species but are antigenically distinct. Blood group antibodies can be formed when an individual receives RBCs from another individual that carry allogeneic antigens. Alloantibodies are formed.
Cell-mediated immunity (CMI)/ cellular immunity Immune responses mediated by T lymphocytes either as a result of direct cytotoxicity or through the liberation of lymphokines.
Lymphokines term used for soluble mediators of the immune response, other than complement and antibody, that are secreted by sensitized lymphocytes on contact with antibody.
Humoral immunity immunity mediated by antibodies.
MHC restriction T-cell receptors recognize antigen only when bound to a particular form of MHC molecule.
Primary immune response characteristics of the immune response to the first or primary antigen presentation.
Anamnestic (secondary) immune response characteristics of the immune response to a second or subsequent exposure to a specific antigen. This response differs in a number of ways from the typical first (primary) response.
Affinity the degree of fit between an antigen and an antibody.
Avidity the strength of the bond between an antigen and its respective antibody.
Specificity the configuration of an antibody that results in its reaction only with the unique antigenic determinant that elicited its response.
Immunoglobulins any of the structurally related glycoproteins that function as antibodies. Immunoglobulins are divided into five classes based on their structure and function.
Constant and variable domains or regions portions of the immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor molecules that have constant amino acid sequences are known as constant regions, and those with variable amino acid sequences are known as variable regions.
Complement a system of at least 25 functionally related serum proteins that cause immune cytolysis and other biologic activities.
Elution the process by which bound antibody is removed from red cells.
Prozone the condition of antibody excess in which few agglutinates form.
Equivalence Optimal antigen-antibody concentrations that facilitate the development of visible agglutinates.
Postzone condition of antigen excess in which few agglutinates form.
Agglutination the clumping together of antigen-bearing cells (such as RBCs) in the presence of specific antibody.
Hemolysis the disruption of the RBC membrane with the subsequent loss of cellular contents. Immune hemolysis is the result of the binding of complement on the cell membrane in conjunction with the binding of antibody to a RBC antigen.
Sensitization the binding of antibody or complement components to a red cell antigen, the first phase of the agglutination reaction.
Direct antiglobulin test (DAT) a one-step test used to identify RBCs that have been sensitized with antibody or complement in vivo.
Indirect antiglobulin test (IAT) a two-step test used to determine if antibody reacts with antigen on RBCs in vitro.
Immunoglobulins Any of the structurally related Glycoproteins that function as antibodies. Five classes based on structure & function.
Epitope The portion of an antigen/invader that can combine with an antibody = antigenic determinant
genetics the study of inheritance or the transmission of characteristics from parents to offspring
chromosome the structures within a nucleus that contain DNA, which transmit genetic information
gene basic unit of inheritance within a chromosome
trait a characteristic that is inherited
locus site of a gene on a chromosome
allele one of two or more different genes that may occupy a specific locus on a chromosome
phenotype inherited traits that are expressed in an individual
genotype an individual’s actual genetic makeup
homozygous 2 alleles for a given trait are the same
heterozygous 2 alleles for a given trait are different
dominant expression of inherited trait when allele is present in either homozygous or heterozygous form
recessive expression of inherited trait only when the allele is present in the homozygous form
incomplete dominance condition in which the products (traits) of both alleles are expressed but the effect of one allele is stronger than that of the other (Sickle cell)
codominance inherited traits that are expressed whether the allele is present in the homozygous or heterozygous form (Blood type)
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