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Integrated Core

NASM CEU

QuestionAnswer
What muscles are involved in the Hip Abductor Complex? Gluteus medius, gluteus minimus and tensor fascia latae (TFL)
What is the isolated function of the hip abductors? They abduct the femur
What is the integrated function of the gluteus medius? decelerates hip adduction and hip internal rotation
What is the integrated function of the gluteus minimus and TFL decelerate hip adduction
The entire abductor complex works synergistally as what? the primary fontal-plan stabilizing mechanism (lateral sub-system)
The TFL also assists in what? decelerating hip extension and hip external rotation
What is the isolated function of the gluteus maximus? produces hip extension and external rotation
What is the integrated function of the gluteus maximus? ecentrically decelerates hip flexion, hip adduction and hip internal rotation during stance phase; decelerates tibial internal rotation via the ITB, assists in stabilizing the SIJ via the sacrotuberous ligament and lateral knee via the ITB
What is the iliopsoas? consists of the iliacus, psoas major, psoas minor
What is the isolated function of the ilioposas? produces hip flexion
What is the integrated function of the iliopsoas? decelerates femoral internal rotation at heel strike, hip extension and assists in stabilizing the lumbar spine during functional movements
Name the major musculature involved in the lower extremity functional anatomy of the kinetic chain hamstrings, hip adductors (gluteus medius, minimus & TFL), gluteus maximus, iliopsoas (iliacus, psoas major & minor)
Describe the function of the lower extremity musculature in relation to the core. stabilize the entire kinetic chain during functional movement patterns. It also works synergistically to decelerate & accelerate the KC during functional movement patterns
What are the benefits of core training? improve dynamic postural control, ensure muscular balance and joint arthrokinematics, allow for expression of functional strength, provide stability to LPHC for optimum NME of the rest of the KC
Describe the concept of functional activity the activity is multiplanar and requires acceleration, deceleration and dynamic stabilization. Movement may appear single-plane dominant but other planes must dynamically stabilize to allow ooptimal NME
Describe the concept of an integrated training program it strives to improve all components necessary to achieve optimum performance (balance, strength, flexibility, endurance, power)
Describe the function of the core musculature. synergistically decelerate & accelerate the entire kinetic chain during functional movement patterns
What are the components of the core musculature? erector spinae and abdominal complex
What muscles make up the erector spinae? iliocostalis, longissimus and spinalis
What is the integrated function of the erector spinae? decelerates flexion, rotation and lateral flexion of the lumbar spine; dynamically stabilizes the lumbar spine during functional movements
What is the isolated function of the erector spinae? extend the trunk
What muscles make up the abdominal complex? rectus abdominus, external & internal oblique, transverse abdominus (TVA)
What is the isolated function of the abdominal complex? it flexes and rotates the trunk
What is the integrated function of the rectus abdominus? declerates extension and rotation, stabilizes the LPHC and flexes the spine
What is the integrated function of the external oblique? decelerates extension and rotation, stabilizes the LPHC, posteriorly rotates the pelvis, flexes the pelvis and produces contralateral roation
What is the integrated function of the internal oblique? declerates extension and rotation, stabilizes the LPHC and produces flexion and ipsilateral rotation
What is the integrated function of the transverse abdominus? works primarily to stabilize the LPHC during functional movement patterns
Name the major musculature involved in the upper extremity functional anatomy of the kinetic chain latissimus dorsi
What is the isolated function of the latissiumus dorsi? adducts, extends and internaly rotates the humerus
What is the integrated function of the latissiumus dorsi? decelerates flexion, abduction and external rotation of the upper extremity, assists in stbilization of the LPHC through the thoracolumbar fascia (TFL) meachanism and functions as a bridge between upper and lower extremity
Describe the function of the upper extremity musculature. functions synergistically to stablize, decelerate and accelerate the entire kinetic chain during functional movement patterns
Name and explain the functional concept of the two distinct yet interdependent muscular systems that enable proper stability and efficient distribution of forces for production of movement intersegmental stability (located more centrally to the spine and support from vertebrae to vertebrae); lateral muscles support the spine as a whole
What is the Inner Unit (Local Muscular System)? It consists of muscles that are not movement specific but provide stability to allow movement of a joint; are usually located in proximity to the joint
What is the Outer Unit (Global Muscular System)? predominantly larger & associated w/movement of trunk & limbs; equalizes external loads placed upon the body; transfers & absorbs forces from upper & lower extremites; superficial musculature that attaches from pelvis to rib cage and/or lower extremities.
What are the major muscles of the Global Muscular System? rectus abdominis, external obliques, erector spinae, hamstrings, gluteus maximus, latissimus dorsi, adductors, hamstrings and quadriceps
Give some examples of joint support systems. posterior fibers of gluteus medius & external rotators of the hip perform pelvo-femoral stabilization; vastus medialis obliquus provides patellar stabilization at the knee.
What are the force-couples broken down into four sub-systems of the outer unit musculature? deep longitudinal, posterior oblique, anterior oblique, lateral sub-system
Name the major contributors to the deep longitudinal sub-system (DLS) erector spinae, TLF, sacrotuberous ligament & biceps femoris
Name the major contributors to the posterior oblique sub-system and its function (POS) gluteus max & latissiumus dorsi attach to TLF which connects to the sacrum. Creates stabilizing force for SIJ. Works synergystically with DLS. Transfers forces summated from Transv plane to propulsion in sagittal plane; prime import in rotational activity
Name the major contributors to the anterior oblique sub-system (AOS) oblique muscles (int & ext), adductor complex and hip external rotators
Explain the function of the AOS. functions in transv plane from anterior of body & aids in stability & rotation of pelvis; contributes to leg swing; necessary for functional activities involving trunk, upper&lower extem - not only for producing rotational/flexion but stabilizing LPHC
Give an example of a common peripheral joint support system. Rotator cuff for the glenohumoral joint that provides dynamic stabilization of the humeral head at the flenoid fossa during movement.
What joint support system is also known as the inner unit? core (LPHC). consists of muscles that originate, insert or both into the lumbar spine. Major muscles: TVA, internal oblique, lumbar multifidus, diaphragm and muscles of the pelvic floor
Name the major contributors to the lateral sub-system (LS) gluteus medius, tensor fascia latae, adductor complex and quadratus lumborum
Explain the function of the LS implicated in frontal plane stability. Responsible for pelvo-femoral stability.
Dysfunction in the LS is signified by what? increased pronation (flexion, internal rotation & adduction) of knee, hip and/or feet during walking, squats, lunges or climbing stairs. Accessory frontal plane movement during gati is characterized by decreased strength & neuromuscular control in the LS
Dysfunction in the POS & AOS system can lead to what? SIJ instability and low back pain (LBP). weakening of the gluteus maximus and/or latissiumus dorsi may also lead to increased tension in hamstring & reoccurring hamstring strains
Which sub-system contributes to the production of efficient movement of the kinetic chain during movement? All four, both individually and interdependently.
Depending on the activity, the body will call on an individual sub-system appropriate for the movement required; true or false? False. The body simultaneously utilizes all four of these sub-systems during activity. They are all integral to prividing dynamic stabilization and optimum neuromuscular control of the entire LPHC.
Name the stabilization mechanisms used by the LPHC during integrated multi-planar movement thoracolumbar stabilization and intra-abdominal pressure (IAP)
Describe the TLF and its function. network of non-contractile tissue essential to functional stability of the lumbar spine. Divided into three layers, posterior, anterior and middle. Engaged dynamically by the contractile tissue that attaches to it.
Name the muscles that attach to the TLF. deep erector spinae, multifidus, TA, internal oblique, gluteus maximum, latissimus dorsi and quadratus lumborum
Explain the particular importance of the TA & internal oblique in relation to the TL stabilization mechanism. They attach to the middle of the TLF. Contraction of these muscles creates traction & tension force on the TLF, enhancing regional inter-segmental stability of LPHC & decreasing translational & rotational stress at the lumbosacral junction.
Describe the function of the IAP mechanism increased IAP decreases compressive forces in the LPHC. Ab muscles contract & push superiorly into diaphragm & inferiorly into pelvic floor resulting in elevation of diaphragm & contractx of pelvic floor musculature that assist in stabiliz of LPHC
The core maintains postural alighment & dynamic postural equilibrium during functional activities; true or false? True
A comprehensive core stabilization program prevents what? development of serial distortion patterns
A comprehensive core stabilization program provides what? optimum dynamic postural control during functional movements
What are arthrokinetic reflexes? reflexes mediated by joint receptor activity
Core stabilizers are primarily made up of what type of muscle fibers? type I slow-twitch muscle fibers
Research has shown decreased firing in which core musculature in individuals with chronic LBP? TVA, internal oblique, multifidus and deep erector spinae
What is time under tension? method of contraction that lasts 6-20 seconds & emphasizes hyper-contractions at end ranges of motion. Improves inramuscular coordination which improves statis & dynamic stabilization.
Abdominal training without proper pelvic stabilization will lead to what? increased intradiscal pressure and compressive forces in the lumbar spine.
Research demonstrates what percentage of people suffer from recurrent episodes of back pain? 75 to 90%
Follower lower extremity ligamentous injuries, individuals have decreased dynamic postural stability in the proximal stabilizer of the LPHC; true or false? True
What is arthogenic muscle inhibition? muscles that are inhibited from arthrokinetic reflex
What are the two rationales behind core training? Muscle capacity and control model
Briefly describe the rationale behind muscle capacity. exercises are performed because demands of trunk control require restoration of strength and endurance of musculature that surrounds the spine to be able to support & stabilize the spine
Briefly describe the rationale behind control model. exercises are performed to gain control & coordination of the trunk musculature-the nervouse system must be able to determine how much stability the spine needs to meet internal/external demands and recruit proper muscles to handle those needs
What is the functional continuum of core stabilization training? multi-planar; multi-dimentional; utilize entire muscle cotnract spectrum, contraction velocity spectrum and manipulate all acute training variables (sets, reps, intensity, rest intervals, frequency, duration)
List the multi-modal loading parameters. stability ball, cable, tubing, medicine ball, power balls, bodyblades, dumbbells, weight vests
List the core stabilization training guidelines. progressive, systematic, activity specific,integrated, proprioceptively challenging, based on current science
List the core stabilization program variables. plane of motion, ROM, loading parameters (bal, dumbbell, tubing, etc), body position, amount of control, speed of execution; amount of feedback; duration (sets, reps, tempo, time under tension), frequency
what is the exercise progression continuum? slow to fast, simple to complex, known to unknow, stable to unstable. Neural adaptations are the focus rather than absolute strength.
What types of exercises are utilized in phase I of the OPT model? exercises that involve little motion through the spine and pelvis; designed to improve functional capacity of the stabilization system
What types of exercises are utilized in phase II of the OPT model? exercises involve more dynamic eccentric/concentric movements of the spine through a full ROM. specificity, spped & neural demand are progressed; designed to improve dynamic stabilization, concentric/eccentric strenght and NME of the KC.
What types of exercises are utilized in phase III of the OPT model?
Give examples of the exercises taht would be appropriate for Phase I core stabilization training. marching, prone iso-abs, side abs, iso abs w/hip extension; floor bridge, floor cobra, arm opposite leg raise
Give examples of the exercises taht would be appropriate for Phase II core stabilization training. ball crunch; ball crunch w/rotation; back extension; reverse crunch; knee ups; cable lift; cable chop
What types of exercises are utilized in phase III of the OPT model? designed to improve rate of force production of the core musculature; prepares indiviual to dynamically stabilize and generate force at more functionally applicable speeds
Give examples of the exercises taht would be appropriate for Phase III core stabilization training. Ball MB pullover throw, woodchop throw; MB scoop toss, rotational chest pass
What is the integrated core training program design for the stabilization phase? 1-4 exercises / 1-3 sets x 12-20 reps / 0-90 second rest
What is the integrated core training program design for the strength phase? 0-4 exercises / 2-3 sets x 8-10 reps / 0-60 second rest
What is the integrated core training program design for the stabilization phase? 0-2 exercises / 2-4 sets x 5-10 reps / 0-60 second rest
Created by: bodyshop