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PN Cert Ch.3

Precision Nutrition Vocab

QuestionAnswer
glycolytic system process of breaking down glucose for energy; can be fast or slow
pyruvate the end process of glycolysis
NADH used to transfer electrons
hydrogen ion the cation of acids; consists of a hydrogen atom whose electron has been transfered to the anion of the acid
NAD+ coenzyme of dehydrogenases; plays a role in the intermediary metabolism as an oxidizing agent for metabolites
lactic acid an organic byproduct of anaerobic metabolism derived from pyruvate; can be used as an energy source for cells
oxidative phosphorylation the phosphorylation of ATP coupled to the ETC
muscle acidity an acidic environment created when the pH level of muscle cells fall below seven
krebs cycle a major metabolic pathway that involves a series of enzymatic reactions that convert pyruvic acid from food to acetyl CoA for energy
electron transport chain set of compounds that transfers electrons to a donor that creates energy
beta oxidation break down of FA that takes place in the mitochondria and peroxisomes
FAD+ riboflavin derived electron acceptor in the Krebs cycle
cytochrome protein found in mitochondria (inner) that transports electrons
glucose 6-phosphate phosphorylated form of glucose that won't diffuse out of a cell
glycogen synthase enzyme necessary for the conversion of excess glucose into stored glycogen
epinephrine hormone and NT; also known as adrenaline
norepinephrine hormone and NT; noradrenaline
glycogen phosphorylase enzyme necessary for glycogenolysis; breaks glycogen into glucose units
glycogenolysis breakdown of stored glycogen to glucose
glucagon hormone secreted by the pancreas to increase blood glucose levels
alpha cells endocrine cells of the pancreas that secret glucagon in response to low blood glucose or stress
adrenal medulla central part of the adrenal gland that secretes (nor)epinephrine and dopamine
glycolysis series of reactions in the cytosol that converts glucose into pyruvate and ultimately ATP
anabolic threshold the point at which lactic acid begins to accumulate in the bloodstream
oxaloacetate intermediate that couples with acetyl CoA to form citrate
fat adaptation a higher capacity to oxidize fat
plasma the liquid component of blood that suspends blood cells; contains water, glucose, proteins and hormones
gluconeogenesis conversion of non-carbohydrate compounds into glucose
cori cycle use of lactate produced in the muscles by the liver for the production of glucose
hormone sensitive lipase enzyme of the cytosol that frees fatty acids and glycerol
growth hormone anabolic hormone that causes growth and cell reproduction; also known as somatotropin
fatty synthase system system of enzymes involved in the synthesis of FA
VLDL particle used in lipid transport; assembled in the liver by cholesterol and apolipoprotein, converted to LDL
lipogenic enzyme enzyme involved with the synthesis of fat
alpha linolenic acid unsaturated omega-3 FA
omega 3 family of unsaturated FA characterized by C-C double bond 3 spaces in from the methyl end
linoleic acid unsaturated omega-6 FA
omega 6 family of unsaturated FA characterized by double bond 6 spaces in from the methyl end
chylomicron a lipoprotein that transports cholesterol and triglyceride from the small intestine to the tissues of the body
lipoprotein a class of proteins with hydrophobic core of triglyceride or cholesterol surrounded by hydrophilic phospholipids, apolipoproteins and cholesterol
statin drugs pharmaceutical agents that decrease cholesterol production within the body via downregulation of HMG CoA reductase
LDL cholesterol a lipoprotein that transports TAG and cholesterol from the liver to body tissues
HDL cholesterol a lipoprotein that transports FA and cholesterol from the body tissues to the liver
lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase LCAT an enzyme that is used to convert cholesterol to a transportable form for lipoproteins
athersclerosis development of plaque in the lumen of blood vessels
plasma pool of amino acids reserve of AA found in blood plasma
peptide chain short polymer formed from linking amino acids
deamination removal of an amine group from a compound
BCAA AA with aliphatic side chain that is non-linear
carbon skeleton chains, branches or rings of carbon atoms that form organic molecules
ammonia also known as NH3, a very basic end product of protein metabolism
urea cycle cycle that takes place in the liver and creates urea from ammonia and CO2
urea water soluble final nitrogenous excretion product synthesised from ammonia and CO2; found in urine
alpha keto acid an organic acid containing a functional ketone group and a carboxylic acid
transamination a transfer of an amino group from an AA to an alpha keto acid
protein turnover balance between protein synthesis and breakdown
Created by: 8605813