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PN Cert Ch.2

Precision Nutrition Vocab

QuestionAnswer
Gastroinestinal tract the long tube through the body composed of stomach and intestines
bile fluid produced by the liver and stored in the gall bladder ultimately secreted into the small intestine to alkalinize and emulsify foodstuffs
enterocyte absorptive cell of the intestine
villi small projections covering the surface of the mucus membrane lining the small intesting, through which nutrients and fluids are absorbed
amylase of pancreatic and salivary origin, this enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of starch into smaller compounds
lipase catalyzes the splitting of fats into glycerol and fatty acids
epiglottis lid-like cartilaginous structure suspended over the entrance of the larynx; swallowing closes the opening to the trachea by placing the larynx against the epiglottis
lower espophageal sphincter also known as the cardiac sphincter, a thick, muscular ring surrounding the opening between the esophagus and stomach
gastroesophageal reflux condition in which acidic stomach contents flow back into the espophagus
peristalsis waves of involuntary muscle contraction moving the contents of the GI tract forward
chyme partly digested food formed as a semi-fluid mass
pyloric sphincter thick, muscular ring of mucus membrane surrounding the opening between the stomach and the duodenum
hiatal hernia protrusion of the stomach through the esophageal hiatus of the diaphragm
hydrochloric acid solution of hydrogen chloride in water; found in gastric juice
ilocecal valve two folds of mucus membrane that form a valve between the large intestine (illeum) and the small intestine (cecum)
pancreas large gland behind the stomach that secretes digestive enzymes and the hormones insulin and glucagon
enterohepatic circulation circulation of blood between the intestine and the liver
short chain fatty acid fatty acid with fewer than 8 carbons that are taken up directly through the portal vein, and are produced and fiber is fermented in the colon
prebiotic compound that is not digested but rather fermented by microflora and stimulates growth of healthy bacteria in the GI tract
probiotic live microorganisms that help to restore beneficial bacteria in the GI tract
hepatic portal system veins that carry blood from the capillaries of the stomach, intestine, pancreas, and spleen to the liver
exocrine secretion, such as saliva or bile, released outside its source by a duct
endocrine secretion, such as a hormone, distributed in the body by the bloodstream
glucoregulatory hormone hormone that balances blood glucose levels, such as glucagon or insulin
gastrin 54
secretin 54
cholecystokinin 54
gastric inhibitory polypeptide 54
motilin 55
somatostatin 55
peptide YY 55
ghrelin 55
neurotransmitters substance that transmits nerve impulses across as synapse
neuromuscular junction junction of an efferent nerve fiber and the muscle fiber cell membrane
parasympathetic nervous system part of the autonomic nervous system that controls secretions and the tone of smooth muscle, along with cardiac muscle activity
microvilli microscopic hair structures that increase the surface area of cells; many are found in the GI tract
intestinal brush border all of the villi that form a brush-like border inside the intestine
simple diffusion spontaneous movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
facilitated diffusion transport that requires a carrier molecule; occurs when diffusion of a substance on its own is not possible
active transport movement of particles from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration; requires energy and enzymes
concentration gradient difference in the concentration of solutes in a solution between two areas
peptic ulcer found on the wall of the duodenum or stomach, this ulcer results when gastric juices and H. pylori (bacteria) combine
emesis vomiting
inflammatory bowel disease inflammation-based disorder of the intestinal tract, such as Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis
food intolerances adverse reaction induced by food
glycogen chief source of stored glucose in selected tissues
first pass metabolism when a substance is swallowed and absorbed, it first travels to the hepatic portal system for metabolism by the liver; this first pass can reduce the availability of the substance to the body
systemic circulation when blood travels from the heart to the arteries and capillaries, exchanging oxygen for CO2 and returning via the veins to the heart for pulmonary circulation
transamination the transfer of an amino group from an amino acid to an alpha-keto acid
acetyl-CoA co-enzyme that plays a role in intermediary metabolism; can enter the Krebs cycle to produce energy and be used for fatty acid synthesis
ketone body either acetoacetic acid, acetone or betahydroxybutyric acid with a carbonyl group attached to two carbon atoms
blood-brain barrier natural barrier formed by brain capillaries that prevents substances from leaving the blood and entering brain tissue
Created by: 8605813