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PN Cert Ch.1

Precision Nutrition Vocab

QuestionAnswer
metabolism sum of the reactions that take place to build up and break down the body
homeostasis the body's ability to maintain a stable and constant internal condition
protein large and complex molecule consisting of amino acids that are essential for living cells
pathogen disease causing agent, usually bacteria, virus or fungi
enzyme substance that helps catalyze chemical reactions
epithelial tissue tissue composed of cellular layers that protect outer surfaces of the human body such as skin, muscosa and intestinal lining
connective tissue supportive tissue such as ligaments, tendons and fascia formed from a fibrous matrix
muscle tissue tissue consisting of bundles of cells that contract when stimulated
nervous tissue tissue capable of conducting impulses that help to connect and communicate signals to other parts of the body
organelle component of the cell that is responsible for a specific task
cytoplasm fluid medium inside of the cell but outside of the nucleus that surrounds organelles
macronutrient nutrient the body requires in large amounts
micronutrients organic compound the body requires in very small amounts ie vitamins and minerals
potential energy energy stored within a physical system
phytochemical chemical substance obtained from plants that is biologically active but non-nutritive
co-factor non-protein compound that interacts with another substance to facilitate a transformation
hormones compound created by one cell that travels to and stimulates another cell
genetics specific, inherited DNA of an organism which influences what they become
DNA nucleic acid that contains instructions for heredity
nucleus organelle where genetic material is housed
gene a particular sequence in DNA/RNA that controls the expression of a protein and by extension influences the characteristics of an organism
genetic polymorphism variation in the form of one or a sequence of genes
nutrigenomics study of how genes respond to nutritional intake
diurnal daily cycle of hormone release
insulin protein hormone released from the pancreas necessary for the metabolism of nutrients
plasma membrane liquid bilayer that is permeable to certain compounds that contains the cell
lipid organic substance that is insoluble in water, provides structure, storage, and messenger functions in the body
cholesterol lipid/sterol contained in the body's cells and fluids that act as a precursor to hormones and bodily structures
phospholipids a type of lipid with a hydrophilic phosphate group "head" and hydrophobic fatty acid "tail" that forms cell membranes
hydrophilic a strong affinity to water
hydrophobic lack of affinity for water
mitochondria organelles that supply the cells energy/ATP
transcription construction of mRNA from a DNA molecule
translation forming a protein molecule based on the information contained in the mRNA
endoplamic reticulum cytoplasmic membrane that translates proteins
golgi apparatus cytoplasmic organelle necessary for the modification and transport of proteins
ribosome a complex rich in RNA and protein found in cells
glycoprotein protein that contain carbohydrate group involved in membrane integrity
cisternae flattened membrane disc of golgi apparatus
vesicles fluid filled pouch or sac that can transport and store compounds
lysosome organelle containing hydrolytic enzymes
peroxisome cytoplasmic organelle with enzymes for production and break down of h2o2
receptor-ligand binding complex a complex formed between a receptor and a substance to allow for further cellular activity
signal transduction conversion of one signal to another by a cell
second messenger substance that mediates intracellular activity by relaying a signal from an extracellular molecule
transport protein protein that moves compounds across a membrane
facilitated diffusion transport that requires a carrier molecule; occurs when diffusion of a substance on its own is not possible
active transport movement of particles from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration; requires energy and enzymes
substrate substance acted upon by an enzyme
Created by: 8605813