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Vitamins

from Merck

NutrientPrincipal SourcesFunctionsDeficiency & Toxicity
Riboflavin (B2) Milk, cheese, liver, meat, eggs, enriched cereal products Many aspects of carbohydrate/protein metabolism; Integrity of mucous membranes Xu: Cheilosis, angular stomatitis, corneal vascularization
Thiamin (B1) Whole grains, meat (esp pork, liver), enriched cereal products, nuts, legumes, potatoes Carbohydrate, fat, amino acid, glucose & alcohol metabolism; Central and peripheral cell function; Myocardial function Xu: Beriberi (peripheral neuropathy, heart failure); Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome
Vitamin A (retinol) Fish liver oils, liver, egg yolks, butter, fortified dairy prods, dark green & yellow veggies, carrots, yellow & orange fruits Formation of rhodopsin; Integrity of epithelia; Lysosome stability; Glycoprotein synthesis Xu: Night blindness, perifollicular hyperkeratosis, xerophthalmia, keratomalacia, increased morbidity/mortality in kids. TOX: H/A, peeling of skin, hepatosplenomegaly, bone thickening, intercranial hypertension, papilledema
Vitamin B6 group (pyridoxine) Organ meats, whole-grain cereals, fish, legumes Nitrogen metabolism; Nucleic acid biosynthesis; Fatty acid, lipid & amino acid metabolism Xu: Seizures, anemia, neuropathies, seborrheic dermatitis TOX: Peripheral neuropathy
Vitamin B12 Meats (esp beef, pork, organ), poultry, eggs, fortified cereals, milk prods Maturation of RBCs; Neural function; DNA synthesis; Myelin synthesis & repair Xu: Megaloblastic anemia; neurologic deficits (confusion, paresthesias, ataxia)
Vitamin C Citrus, tomatoes, potatoes, broccoli, strawberries, sweet peppers Collagen formation; Bone & blood vessel health; Carnitine, hormone & amino acid formation; Wound healing Xu: Scurvy (hemorrhages, loose teeth, gingivitis, bone defects)
Vitamin D Direct ultraviolet B irradiation of skin (main source), fortified dairy, fish liver oils, fatty fish, liver Ca & P absorption; Mineralization & repair of bone; Tubular reabsorp of Ca; Insulin & thyroid funct, improves immune funct, reduces autoimmune disease Xu: Rickets (sometimes w/tetany), osteomalacia TOX: Hypercalcemia, anorexia, renal failure, metastatic calcification
Vitamin E Vegetable oils, nuts, legumes Intracellular antioxidant; Scavenger of free radicals in biologic membranes Xu: RBC hemolysis, neurologic deficits TOX: Tendency to bleed
Vitamin K Green leafy veggies, soy beans, vegetable oils, bacteria in GI tract after neonatal period Formation of prothrombin, other coagulation factors & bone proteins Xu: Bleeding d/t deficiency of prothrombin, osteopenia
Folate (folic acid) Fresh green, leafy veggies, fruits, organ meats, enriched bread/cereals Maturation of RBC; Synthesis of purines, pyrimidines & methionine; Development of fetal nervous system Xu: Megaloblastic anemia; neural tube birth defects; mental confusion
Niacin Liver, red meat, fish, poultry, legumes, whole grain or enriched bread/cereals Oxidation-reduction reactions; Carbohydrate & cell metabolism Xu: Pellagra (dermatitis, glossitis, GI & CNS dysfunction) TOX: Flushing
Created by: c-rex