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Ch 1-12 net big book

Chapters 1-12 PC class big book-troubleshooting pc's

What can cause damage to components through the discharge of static electricity? ESD
Which connector type has a slight D-shape? DB
Which connector type is most commonly used in the back of a PC? Centronics
RJ-11 jacks are almost exclusively used for ____. Modems
How many devices can be supported by USB on a computer? 127
Which of the following has developed and sponsors A+ Certification? CompTIA
What company, or companies, administers actual CompTIA A+ testing? Prometric
How many tests must you complete to become A+ certified? 2
What test must be passed for any of the certifications? Essentials
How many A+ certification tracks exist? 3
How many clock cycles does the CPU require to act on a command? At least 2
One billion cycles per second is equivalent to ____. 1 gigahertz
How many bits make up a byte? 8
Four bits make up a ____. nibble
64 bits make up a ____. Quad word
Which of the following stores the data that the CPU actively uses? RAM
1 megabyte is equivalent to ____ bytes 1,048,576
Which of the following is equivalent to 1024 bytes? 1 Kilobyte
The CPU uses a series of actions to complete a task. What is this series of actions called? Pipeline
Which of the following terms is used to define the first cache that the CPU uses? L1 Cache
What kind of RAM is cache typically made of? SRAM
What is used to hold a CPU? ZIF
What cache was historically on the motherboard, but now often comes on the CPU? L2
CPUs typically run faster than the clock. What do they use to do this? Multipliers
What is a common voltage for CPUs? 3.3 volts
What is used to provide the proper voltage to a CPU? Voltage regulator module (VRM)
Which CPU of AMD is a direct competitor of Intel's Celeron? Duron
Many of today?s processors are measured by the process. What is a valid term for the process? 85 nanometer
Which socket is used in AMD Athlon XP CPUs? Socket A
What is a benefit of a smaller process? Cooler
What is the width of the frontside bus of an Intel Itanium CPU? 128 bit
What is the width of the physical address of an Intel Itanium CPU? 44 bits
Which is the housing for the Intel Itanium CPU? PGA
Which CPU package does the AMD Opteron use? Micro PGA
What is the practical limit for modern CPU clock speeds? 4 GHz
Because CPU makers can't make the processors run much quicker, they are instead doing what? Combining multiple CPUs on a single chip
In the Pentium D, what does the D stand for? Dual, as in two
If the number of wires in a CPU's address bus is 20, what is the maximum amount of RAM the CPU can handle? 220
In SDRAM, what does the S represent? Synchronous
Where are programs stored when they NOT running? Harddrive
When the user loads a program, where is it copied before it is run? RAM
What unit is used to measure the capacity of RAM? Byte
Which of the following is a mass storage device? RAM
SDRAM comes on a stick known as a ____ on most modern PCs. DIMM
What do most laptops use instead of a DIMM? SO-DIMM
A DIMM in any one of the DIMM slots is referred to as ____. A Bank
What was the width in bits of the original 8088 processor's frontside bus? 8
Most 8088 machine language commands need ____ byte(s). 1
Which of the following DIMMs is used in laptops? 144-pin SO-DIMM
Which RAM is tied to the system clock? SDRAM
Modern CPUs since the Pentium have a data bus that is ____ bits wide. 64
What is RDRAM also known as? RIMM
What type of computer uses the 68-pin micro-DIMM and 144-pin SO-DIMM? Laptop
DDR SDRAM for laptops comes in ____. 172-pin micro-DIMMs
What type of RAM can handle speeds of up to 1066 MHz? RDRAM
What kind of RAM did RAMBUS, Inc develop? RIMM
AMD?s answer to RDRAM was ____. DDR-SDRAM
All unused RIMM slots on a RDRAM motherboard should have a device called a ____ installed on them. CRIMM
DDR SDRAM for desktops comes in ____. 184-pin DIMMs
What does excessive disk thrashing indicate? Insufficient RAM
If Windows generates parity errors with the same addresses, the ____ is probably at fault. RAM
The RAM count on a PC is based on units of ____ bytes. 1024
What are DIMMs and RIMMs? RAM sticks
What is the DDR speed rating of DDR400 RAM? It has a clock speed of 200 MHz
SDRAM uses the ____ speed. clockspeed
The user has to install RIMMs in pairs as the ____ chip employs dual-channel architecture. RDRAM
RAM with a PC rating of PC1600 has a clock speed of..... 200 MHz
RAM with a DDR2 PC speed rating of PC2-3200 has a core RAM clock speed of 100 MHz
The panic button inside the PC is called ____. NMI
Which of the following handles the interconnection between most of the devices and the CPU? Southbridge
Which of the following is a special database that holds key information about your system including the device drivers? Registry
Where does the motherboard store the keyboard controller support program? ROM chip
How many MB of programs do system ROM chips store? 2
Which of the following components is read-only? ROM
Which chip acts as a clock to keep the current date and the time? CMOS
Which chip is used to store information that describes specific device parameters? CMOS
How can you easily clear the CMOS, including clearing the password? Unplug the PC and remove the CMOS battery; unplug the pc and short the CMOS jumper.
From where can the boot option be selected? Advanced BIOS Features
Which chip contains the system BIOS and can hold data permanently, even without electricity? Flash ROM
Which chip can be reprogrammed to update its contents? Flash ROM
Where does a SCSI host adapter store its BIOS? Option ROM
Where do modern PCs store CMOS settings? Flash ROM
What's a method of clearing the CMOS password? Remove a jumper on the motherboard
What is POST? power-on self test
The computer is beeping constantly after you have booted it. What's a likely problem? RAM
Does POST check the modem? No, it checks memory, CPU, and video
What is used to change or remove device drivers in Windows? Device Manager
Where should you look to interpret different beep codes? BIOS manufacturer
Where is POST located? System ROM
Most modern systems have only a single beep code to indicate something is wrong. What is it? one long beep and three short beeps
Which is the first electrical component to ?wake up? when a computer is turned on? CPU
What are programs stored on ROM chips called? Firmware
Upgrading the BIOS is also known as ________. Flashing
When does the CMOS password appear? At power on
Several lines at the end of POST are used to find the operating system. What is this called? Bootstrap Loader
What does a computer use to permanently store programs and data when it is turned off? harddrive
Making the address bus accessible to any device enables the device to have access to ____. RAM or memory
The 8088 processor with an 8-bit external data bus runs at a speed of ____ MHz. 4.77
The AT bus is also known as the ____ bus. 16-bit ISA
The I/O address, containing the patterns of ones and zeroes, is written using the ____ numbering system. hexadecimal
The CPU sends an I/O address using the first 16 address bus wires after turning on the ____ wire. IO/MEM
What does the hexadecimal value 0 indicates? A wires off
Where do expansion cards plug into? Bus slots
Where can you check to ensure particular software works with your version of Windows? Windows Marketplace
The CPU stops its current processing and deals with an interrupting device when the ____ wire is charged. INT
The ____ handles data manipulation and uses I/O addresses to communicate with devices. CPU
Direct memory access (DMA) enables the system to run background applications without interfering with the ____. CPU
Where should you check to ensure you have the correct drivers for a device? Manufacturer's website
When installing an expansion card, what should you be careful of? ESD Damage
Classic DMA is used on most systems only by the ____. Floppy Drive
Connectors on PCI cards can get dull from oxidation. How should they be cleaned? Contact cleaning solution
What should be installed first, the USB device or the USB driver? USB driver
What should be installed first, the FireWire device or the FireWire driver? Firewire driver
Name two places that will allow you to uninstall a device in Windows XP? Add or Remove Programs and Device Manager
Devices that use the ____ bus are self-configuring. PCI
Which slot provides support for graphically intense computer games? AGP
Configuration of resources being used by devices is done through ____ in modern systems. Plug and Play
It is possible to check assigned resources using ____. Device Manager
Which error symbol do you get which indicates a disabled device error? red X
Successful installation of a compatible driver is indicated by _____ symbol in Windows XP. the absence of a red X
When installing a modem into a PCI slot, what should be installed first, the hardware or the driver? The device
____ is the smallest motherboard version in the ATX standard. FlexATX
____ is a variant of the microATX created by Intel. FlexATX
Some____ chips on a motherboard handle the infrared connection. Super I/O
Intel-based motherboards use the term ____ hub instead of Northbridge. Memory controller
____ are the lights that have positive and negative sides. LED's
The function of each LED wire is usually printed on the ____. Connector
Electrical surges and ESD can cause ____ failure. Component
A(n) ____ symptom is the most difficult symptom to diagnose. RAM
A brand new system failing due to manufacturing defects and any system failing due to a shock of electrostatic discharge is often called a ____ failure. Burn in
What type of failure results in the PC failing to boot? Catastrophic failure
The ____ type of motherboard has a large keyboard and a split P8/P9 style of power socket. AT
The main problem with form factors such as LPX and NLX was their ____. Inflexability
The only dedicated connector on an AT motherboard is the ____ plug. Keyboard
____ makes the chipset for AMD Athlon 64 processors. NVIDIA
The _______ determines the type of processor and RAM required for a motherboard. chipset
Popular motherboard manufacturers include all of the following EXCEPT ____. Northbridge
What type of failure usually happens within the first 30 days of use? Burn in failure
ATX motherboards use a feature called ____ that allows software to turn the power on and off. soft power
The LPX and NLX form factors provided an insertion slot for the ____ card. riser
Shorter wires can easily handle double or quadruple the ____ speed of the motherboard. clock
Many motherboards use a simple connector called a ____ to make some physical ports accessible from the front of the case. dongle
What determines the type of case a motherboard needs and provides maximum expansion slot limit? form factor
What provides support to USB and FireWire on computers? The Motherboard
The motherboard mounts to the case via small connectors called ____. standouts
What unit is used to measure voltage? volt
What is the unit of measuring current? ampere
Which of the following units is used to measure resistance? Ohm
What type of voltage does a PC use? DC
In an IEC-320 plug, which wire carries electrical voltage? hot
Which of the following wires carries no voltage? nuetral
A surge suppressor should be rated at a minimum of ____ joules 800
Power supplies come with a standard ____ for the motherboard and interior devices. connector
The P1 connector from the power supply is plugged into the ____ socket. P1
Which connector is the most common type of connector used for devices that require 5 V or 12 V of power? Molex
The 3.5-inch floppy drive uses the ____ connector. mini
Power supplies are rated in ____. watts
What type of power connector is L-shaped? SATA
A coworker is taking a computer overseas and asks you what concerns he should have. What do you tell him? Make sure he switches the power supply to 230AC.
The standard modern power supply provides ____ volts of power. 3.3, 5, and 12
What uses the soft power feature? ATX
Which power supply never turns off? ATX
Molex connectors are used for ____ power. peripheral
Most case fans have standard ____ connectors that are easy to plug in. Molex
Expansion bays must be covered by the ____ to maintain proper airflow inside the case. slot cover
The ____ power supply has a 24-pin main motherboard that resembles a 20-pin P1 connector. EPS12 V
Which industry group came up with a non-ATX standard motherboard and power supply called EPS12 V? Server System Infrastructure
A(n) ____ power supply converts energy efficiently. Active PFC
What should be the outputs of the hot, neutral, and ground wires when tested with a multimeter? 115 V, 0 V, 0 V
How is DC voltage represented on multimeters? V with a solid line above a dashed line
A PC doesn't work. What should you check first? Ensure AC plug is plugged in
Power supplies are protected from spikes of AC current with the use of a ____. (3 things) fuse, surge suppressor, and UPS
What UL rating should you look for on a surge suppressor? UL1449
How many watts of power does a typical hard drive in a PC require? 15
How many watts of power does an Athlon64X2 CPU require at peak performance? 110
The notches in the Molex connector that guides installation are called ____. chamfers
Which is the latest ATX power supply standard? ATX12V 2.0
What class of fire extinguisher should be used on an electrical fire? Class C
What is the amount of amps and volts needed by a particular device to function called? Wattage
____ stores data in a unique pattern of 1s and 0s. RLL
Each platter requires ____ heads. Two
A ____ is a circle where data is stored on a drive. Track
Which of the following hard drive geometry values is no longer relevant in today's PCs? Write Precomp
Which interface requires a ribbon cable and a built-in controller on the drive itself? ATA
How many drives can be supported with ATA-2 (sometimes called EIDE)? FOUR
Modern PATA drives use a ____ connector for power. Molex
The ____ interface enables non-hard drive devices to connect to the PC via the ATA controllers. ATAPI
How many wires does the SATA interface have? Seven
How many pins does an EIDE (ATA) drive have? 40
How many ATA devices can be connected to most modern PCs? Four
Which of the following does NOT require jumper settings? PATA, ATA, SATA, OR AT SATA
The drive technology that supports only a single device per controller channel is known as _____. SATA
What is a series of SCSI devices working together through a host adapter called? SCSI chain
The SCSI host adapter uses the ____ to differentiate between devices. SCSI ID
What's the minimum number of drives needed for RAID 5? 3
A system with ____ extension can handle drives up to 137 GB. INT13
The ____ standard has an enhanced block mode that enables drives to transfer up to 65,536 sectors in one chunk. ATA/ATAPI-6
Since any SCSI device might be on the end of a chain, most manufacturers build SCSI devices that can ____. self terminate
Internal SCSI devices connect to the host adapter with a ____-pin ribbon cable. 68
The host adapter is also referred to as a ____. SCSI Controller
An ATA/100 can transfer data at ____ MBps. 100
ATA/66, ATA/100, and ATA/133 require a ____ cable. 80-wire
What is the process of spreading data across multiple drives? disk striping
How many levels of RAID exist? Seven
Disk mirroring is also known as _____. RAID 1
Which RAID level was never implemented? RAID 2
Which RAID levels combined dedicated data drives with dedicated parity drives? RAID 3 AND RAID 4
Which operating system has built-in software for RAID 5? Windows Server 2003
The mirroring technique in which each drive has its own controller is called ____. Drive duplexing
SCSI ID numbers can range from 0 to ____. 15
What can happen if you reverse a SCSI cable during installation? You can seriously damage the drive
Windows XP can create partitions using the ____ disk. Basic
The ____ takes control of the boot process from the system BIOS. MBR
How many partitions can be active at any given point in time? One
All basic hard drive partition tables support up to ____ bootable partitions. Four
The ____ stores the location of the operating system boot files. Volume boot sector
The operating system is stored in a(n) ____ partition. Primary
Which of the following is the default primary partition for Windows NT/XP/2000? C:
A PC can boot to both Windows XP and Linux. What is this called? Dual Boot
How many extended partitions can be created in a hard drive? One
In Windows, each ____ is assigned a drive letter from C: to Z:. Partition
Which file format is best suited for a Windows NT/2000/XP operating system? NTFS
Which file system will not support a partition size of up to 2.1 GB? FAT16
What tool can you use to find additional space on your hard drive? Disk Cleanup
What tool in Windows 2000/XP is used to partition and format a drive? Disk Management
A ____ volume is similar to a primary partition, but it is not a primary partition. Simple
A ____ volume spreads out blocks of each file across multiple disks. Striped
An entire physical drive can be added to another drive as a folder by creating a ____. Mount Point
What?s the largest size of a new FAT32 partition in Windows XP? 32GB
A ____ is the base storage area for hard drives in the FAT format. Sector
Each sector in a hard disk can store up to ____ bytes of data. 512
The FAT in floppy drives is ____ bits. 12
What code indicates that a sector in the hard drive is bad? FFF7
Which of the following cluster codes indicates the end of file in a FAT16 system? FFFF
How many bits are used to describe each cluster in FAT32? 32
Which of the following uses a master file table? NTFS
The ____ is an upgraded version of NTFS file system used by Windows 2000/XP. NTFS5
Which file system enables a user to adjust the cluster size? NTFS
What type of problem does the error message "?No BOOT Device?" indicate? Connectivity
What tool can be used to verify a hard disk on Windows XP? Error checking tool
A(n) ____ is a drive that functions like a folder on another drive. mount point
What is the storage capacity of the present day 3�-inch floppy disk? 1.44 MB
What is the device that is used to read a floppy disk? floppy drive
The key preventative maintenance performed on floppy drives is____. Cleaning
What will happen if the floppy drive cable is installed backward when installing a floppy drive? LED will come on and stay on
What is the speed of USB 2.0? 480 Mbps
Which of the following would prove more damaging to a CD-RW? Scratching the top of a disc
CD-ROMs store data using ____ burned into a glass master CD-ROM with a powerful laser. microchip pits
CD-ROM drives use a ____ and mirrors to read the data off a CD-ROM. Laser
All modern CD-R drives allow you to burn additional data onto a CD-R disc until the disc is full. What are these called? multisession drives
What kind of memory do USB drives use? Flash ROM
What is the floppy drive format most commonly used today? 3�-inch floppy drive
An 8�4�32� CD-RW drive reads at a speed of ____. 32�
If you have only floppy drive, what should it be called? A:
While booting, most PCs will first look for an operating system in the ____ drive. A:
If the floppy drive is installed on the middle connector, which drive letter is it assigned? B:
How much data can the highest capacity version of a DVD store? 25GB
Most floppy cables have only the connectors for _____-inch drives. 3
After installing the floppy drive, the next step is to configure the ____ settings. CMOS
DVD-ROM is the DVD-equivalent of the standard ____ data format. CD ROM
Which of the following is a group of compression standards for both audio and video? Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG)
Which option is used to inform the PC not to check the floppy disk, during the POST? Boot Up Floppy Seek
ATAPI CD-ROMS have regular ____ PATA (IDE) connectors and master/slave jumpers. 40-Pin
In Windows 2000, a user must edit the ____ to turn off the AutoPlay option. Registry
Which of the following is a complete copy of a CD that can be burned to another CD to make a duplicate? ISO file
Which wire on the floppy drive cable is called the Drive Change Signal? 34th
What can be used to read different USB cards? Card reader
What is USB flash memory typically known as? Thumb drive
Discs burned in ____ systems can be read by almost all CD- and DVD-media drives. Windows XP
CD-R disks use ____ as part of the burning process. light
Conventionally, if there is only one floppy drive, which drive letter should it be assigned? A:
The inability of the source device to keep up with the burner is known as _____. Buffer underrun
Which program can be used from within the Windows GUI to start an upgrade to Windows 2000 or XP? WINNT32.exe
A Windows XP home computer can play the role of a(n) ____ computer on a network. Standalone
Which setting enables you to adjust settings for the display of date, time, math separators, and currency symbols? Locale
What program is used to check hardware and software compatibility? Winnt32 /checkupgradeonly
A(n) ____ is a fix for a single problem within an operating system. patch
When combined together, accumulated patches are called ____. updates
The recommended amount of memory for a Windows XP computer is ____ MB of RAM. 256
What online tool can be used to check your hardware and software and report compatibility issues for an upgrade to Windows XP? Upgrade Advisor
Which installation is popular for re-creating standard configurations? image
During what phase of an installation can you partition the hard disk? Text mode
Users will always be prompted for an installation directory during a(n) __________ installation. clean
After installing Windows XP, the system must be activated within ____ days or the system will go into a limited use mode. 30
The minimum memory requirement for a Windows 2000 Professional computer is ____ MB. 64
Which card is recommended for a Windows 2000 Professional computer that will connect to a network? Modern NIC
What is the ultimate authority that identifies whether hardware components are compatible with the operating system. Windows Marketplace
You can upgrade directly to Windows 2000 from all of the following operating systems except which one? Windows ME
Third-party disk compression applications are ______ in Windows XP. not supported
Installing an operating system onto a hard drive with no previous OS installed is known as a(n)_____. Clean install
The minimum size of the boot partition for Windows 2000 should be at least ____ GB. 2
The recommended hard disk space for a Windows XP computer is ____ GB. 4
For a Windows XP computer, a video card must support Direct X8 with at least ____ resolution. 800x600
What is the first process that runs on the Windows XP installation CD? Upgrade Advisor
Which log file tracks the complete installation process, registry updates, and reboots of a Windows XP machine? SETUPLOG.TXT
Which log file tracks each piece of hardware as it is installed on Windows XP? SETUPAPI.LOG
A(n) ____ is a combination of fixes. Service pack
When using cloned images, a problem is that all the images have the same SID. What tool can be used to make each new cloned image have a unique SID? Sysprep
During a(n) ____ installation, the new operating system can be installed into a different subdirectory on a different drive, leaving the old operating system intact and usable. multiboot
What is the Windows installation option that inherits all previous settings, hardware, and applications? Upgrade
Which installation option is usually initiated by accessing a shared network directory? Scripted
Expansion cards plug into_______ Expansion slots
RAM is measured in __________ megabytes or gigabytes
Expansion cards plug into_______ Expansion slots
RAM is measured in __________ megabytes or gigabytes
ATA and SCSI are two common types of ______drives. IDE (integrated drive electronics)
USB devices are _________, meaning you can remove them while power is still on. hot-swappable
A mouse typically uses a ___________ connector. USB port or mini din
Groups of connected computers used for sharing information are also known as Networks
CD ROM and DVD drives are actually _______ type drives and connect with a ribbon cable. PATA
The two ATA standards in use today are _______ and ________. PATA, SATA
A DVI connector is used for ____________. Video cards
The _________ numbering system is used to describe the state of a wire at any given moment. Binary
The temporary storage areas of a CPU are called ____________. Registers
The memory closest to the CPU is called _________. L1 Cache
Forcing a system to run faster than the speed it's designed for is called ______________ overclocking
The connection between the CPU, MCC, and the RAM is called the ______________ frontside bus
If a device wants to get the CPU's attention, it lights the interrupt wires with a special pattern of ones and zeroes. These ones and zeroes are known as ____________. IRQ's - Interrupt requests
Newer systems use a type of DMA called _________, which doesn't require a DMA controller. Bus Mastering
All the data transfer and commands flow through the ___________wires embedded in the motherboard. trace
The __________ defines the type of the processor and RAM required for the motherboard. chipset
Most modern chipsets are composed of two primary chips: the _______________ and the _________________. Northbridge/southbridge
The form factor of the _______ motherboard replaced the rear panel with all the necessary ports built in. ATX
The pressure of electorns in a wire is called __________. Voltage
_________ current allows electrons to flow in one direction around continuous circuits. DC
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