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OB final 9-15

group A collection of individuals who interact with each other such that one person’s actions have an impact on the others.
informal work groups Two or more individuals who are associated with one another in ways not prescribed by the formal organization.
formal work group Is made up of managers, subordinates, or both with close associations among group members that influence the behavior of individuals in the group.
performance model forming, storming, norming, performing, adjourning. Proposed by Bruce Tuckman in 1965 and involved a four-stage map of group evolution.
adjourning phase The fifth and final stage later added to the Tuckman model.
forming Stage when the group comes together for the first time.
storming Stage when participants focus less on keeping their guard up as they shed social facades, becoming more authentic and more argumentative.
norming Stage when participants find it easy to establish their own ground rules (or norms) and define their operating procedures and goals.
performing Stage when participants are not only getting the work done, but they also pay greater attention to how they are doing it.
punctuated equilibrium The theory that change within groups occurs in rapid, radical spurts rather than gradually over time.
cohesion The degree of camaraderie within the group.
groupthink A tendency to avoid a critical evaluation of ideas the group favors.
social loafing The tendency of individuals to put in less effort when working in a group context.
collective efficacy A group’s perception of its ability to successfully perform well.
process loss Any aspect of group interaction that inhibits group functioning.
team A cohesive coalition of people working together to achieve mutual goals.
production tasks Tasks that include actually making something such as a building, product, or a marketing plan.
idea-generation tasks Creative tasks such as brainstorming a new direction or creating a new process.
problem-solving tasks Refers to coming up with plans for actions and making decisions.
task interdependence The degree that team members are dependent upon one another to get information, support, or materials from other team members to be effective.
pooled interdependence When team members may work independently and simply combine their efforts to create the team’s output.
sequential interdependence In a team, when one person’s output becomes another person’s input.
reciprocal interdependence Team members working on each task simultaneously.
outcome interdependence When the rewards that an individual receives depend on the performance of others.
task force A type of temporary team which is asked to address a specific issue or problem until it is resolved.
product development teams Other teams that may be temporary or ongoing.
cross-functional teams Teams that involve individuals from different parts of the organization staff.
virtual teams Teams where members are not located in the same physical place.
top management teams Teams appointed by the chief executive officer (CEO) and, ideally, reflect the skills and areas that the CEO considers vital for the company.
traditional manager-led teams Teams where the manager serves as the team leader.
self-managed teams Teams that manage themselves and do not report directly to a supervisor. Instead, team members select their own leader, and they may even take turns in the leadership role.
empowered teams Teams that have the responsibility as well as the authority to achieve their goals.
self-directed teams A special form of self-managed teams where members determine who will lead them with no external oversight.
norms Shared expectations about how things operate within a group or team.
team contract Agreements on established ground rules, goals, and roles.
conflict A process that involves people disagreeing.
intrapersonal conflict Conflict that arises within a person.
interpersonal conflict A type of conflict between two people.
intergroup conflict Conflict that takes place among different groups, such as different departments or divisions in a company, or between union and management, or between companies, such as companies who supply the same customer.
conflict management Resolving disagreements effectively.
avoiding An uncooperative and unassertive conflict-handling style.
accommodating A cooperative and unassertive conflict-handling style.
compromising A middle-ground conflict-handling style, in which a person has some desire to express their own concerns and get their way but still respects the other person’s goals as well.
competing A conflict-handling style that is highly assertive but low on cooperation.
collaborating A conflict-handling style that is high on both assertiveness and cooperation.
negotiation A process whereby two or more parties work toward an agreement.
investigation The first step in negotiation in which information is gathered.
BATNA Stands for the “best alternative to a negotiated agreement.” Determining your BATNA is one important part of the investigation and planning phase in negotiation.
presentation The third phase of negotiation.
bargaining The fourth phase of negotiation.
concessions Giving up one thing to get something else in return.
closure The last part of negotiation in which you and the other party have either come to an agreement on the terms, or one party has decided that the final offer is unacceptable and therefore must be walked away from.
distributive view The traditional fixed-pie approach in which negotiators see the situation as a pie that they have to divide between them.
integrative approach An approach to negotiation in which both parties look for ways to integrate their goals under a larger umbrella.
Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) Includes mediation, arbitration, and other ways of resolving conflicts with the help of a specially trained, neutral third party without the need for a formal trial or hearing.
mediation A process in which an outside third party (the mediator) enters the situation with the goal of assisting the parties to reach an agreement.
arbitration A process that involves bringing in a third party, the arbitrator, who has the authority to act as a judge and make a binding decision to which both parties must adhere.
decision making Making choices among alternative courses of action, including inaction.
programmed decisions Decisions that occur frequently enough that we develop an automated response to them.
decision rule Automated response to problems that occur routinely.
nonprogrammed decisions Unique, nonroutine, and important. These decisions require conscious thinking, information gathering, and careful consideration of alternatives.
strategic decisions Decisions that are made to set the course of an organization.
tactical decisions Decisions about how things will get done.
operational decisions Decisions employees make each day to make the organization function.
rational decision-making model A series of steps that decision makers should consider if their goal is to maximize their outcome and make the best choice.
decision criteria A set of parameters against which all of the potential options in decision making will be evaluated.
alternatives Other possible solutions to a problem in a decision-making process.
analysis paralysis A decision-making process in which more and more time is spent on gathering information and thinking about it, but no decisions actually get made.
bounded rationality model According to this model, individuals knowingly limit their options to a manageable set and choose the first acceptable alternative without conducting an exhaustive search for alternatives.
satisfice To accept the first alternative that meets minimum criteria.
intuitive decision-making model Arriving at decisions without conscious reasoning. The model argues that in a given situation, experts making decisions scan the environment for cues to recognize patterns.
creativity The generation of new ideas that are original, fluent, and flexible.
fluency The number of ideas a person is able to generate.
flexibility How different the ideas are from each other. If individuals are able to generate several unique solutions to a problem, they are high on flexibility.
originality How unique a person’s ideas are.
brainstorming A process of generating ideas that follows a set of guidelines, including not criticizing ideas during the process, the idea that no suggestion is too crazy, and building on other ideas (piggybacking).
idea quotas A set number of ideas a group must reach before they are done with brainstorming.
wildstorming A variation of brainstorming in which the group focuses on ideas that are impossible and then imagines what would need to happen to make them possible.
overconfidence bias What occurs when individuals overestimate their ability to predict future events.
hindsight bias The opposite of overconfidence bias, as it occurs when looking backward in time and mistakes seem obvious after they have already occurred.
anchoring The tendency for individuals to rely too heavily on a single piece of information.
framing bias The tendency of decision makers to be influenced by the way problems are presented.
escalation of commitment When individuals continue on a failing course of action after information reveals it may be a poor path to follow.
groupthink A tendency to avoid a critical evaluation of ideas the group favors.
Nominal Group Technique (NGT) A technique designed to help with group decision making by ensuring that all members participate fully.
Delphi Technique A group process that utilizes written responses to a series of questionnaires instead of physically bringing individuals together to make a decision.
majority rule A decision-making rule in which each member of the group is given a single vote, and the option receiving the greatest number of votes is selected.
consensus A decision-making rule that groups may use when the goal is to gain support for an idea or plan of action. This decision-making rule is inclusive, participatory, cooperative, and democratic.
premortem A way to imagine what might go wrong and avoid it before spending a cent or having to change course along the way.
Group Decision Support Systems (GDSS) Interactive computer-based systems that are able to combine communication and decision technologies to help groups make better decisions.
knowledge management systems Systems for managing knowledge in organizations, supporting creation, capture, storage, and dissemination of information.
decision trees Diagrams where answers to yes or no questions lead decision makers to address additional questions until they reach the end of the tree.
leadership The act of influencing others toward a goal.
formal leaders Those who hold a position of authority and may utilize the power that comes from their position, as well as their personal power to influence others.
informal leaders Those without a formal position of authority within the organization but demonstrate leadership by influencing those around them through personal forms of power.
task-oriented leader behaviors Structuring the roles of subordinates, providing them with instructions, and behaving in ways that will increase the performance of the group (also called initiating structure).
people-oriented leader behaviors Showing concern for employee feelings and treating employees with respect (also called consideration).
authoritarian decision making What occurs when leaders make the decision alone without necessarily involving employees in the decision-making process.
democratic decision making What occurs when leaders and employees participate in the making of the decision.
laissez-faire decision making What occurs when leaders leave employees alone to make the decision. The leader provides minimum guidance and involvement in the decision.
Theory X A theory of human nature which assumes that employees are lazy, do not enjoy working, and will avoid expending energy on work whenever possible.
Theory Y A theory of human nature which assumes that employees are not lazy, can enjoy work, and will put effort into furthering organizational goals.
directive leaders Leaders who provide specific directions to their employees. They lead employees by clarifying role expectations, setting schedules, and making sure that employees know what to do on a given work day.
supportive leaders Leaders who provide emotional support to employees. They treat employees well, care about them on a personal level, and they are encouraging.
participative leaders Those who make sure that employees are involved in the making of important decisions.
achievement-oriented leaders Those who set goals for employees and encourage them to reach their goals.
transformational leaders Those who lead employees by aligning employee goals with the leader’s goals. These leaders use their charisma, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, and individualized consideration to influence their followers.
transactional leaders Those who ensure that employees demonstrate the right behaviors and provide resources in exchange. These leaders provide contingent rewards and manage by exception.
charisma Behaviors leaders demonstrate that create confidence in, commitment to, and admiration for the leader.
inspirational motivation When leaders come up with a vision that is inspiring to others.
intellectual stimulation When leaders challenge organizational norms and status quo, and encourage employees to think creatively and work harder.
individualized consideration When leaders show personal care and concern for the well-being of their followers.
contingent rewards Rewarding employees for their accomplishments.
active management by exception Leaving employees alone but at the same time proactively predicting potential problems and preventing them from occurring.
passive management by exception Leaving employees alone but then coming to the rescue if anything goes wrong.
trust The belief that the other party will show integrity, fairness, and predictability in one’s actions toward the other.
high-quality LMX relationships A high-quality, trust-based relationship between a leader and a follower.
low-quality LMX relationships A situation in which the leader and the employee have lower levels of trust, liking, and respect toward each other.
servant leadership A leadership approach that defines the leader’s role as serving the needs of others.
authentic leadership approach A leadership approach advising leaders to stay true to their own values.
power The ability to influence the behavior of others to get what you want.
conformity People’s tendencies to behave consistently with social norms.
dependency Directly related to power. The more that a person or unit is dependent on you, the more power you have.
scarcity In the context of dependency, refers to the uniqueness of a resource.
importance The value of the resource.
substitutability One’s ability to find another option that works as well as the one offered.
legitimate power Power that comes from one’s organizational role or position.
reward power The ability to grant a reward, such as an increase in pay, a perk, or an attractive job assignment.
coercive power The ability to take something away or punish someone for noncompliance.
expert power Power that comes from knowledge and skill.
information power Power that comes from access to specific information.
referent power Power that stems from the personal characteristics of the person such as the degree to which we like, respect, and want to be like them.
charisma The ability to attract others, win their admiration, and hold them spellbound.
resistance Occurs when the influence target does not wish to comply with the request and either passively or actively repels the influence attempt.
compliance Occurs when the target does not necessarily want to obey, but they do.
commitment Occurs when the target not only agrees to the request but also actively supports it as well.
rational persuasion Includes using facts, data, and logical arguments to try to convince others that your point of view is the best alternative.
inspirational appeals Those that seek to tap into our values, emotions, and beliefs to gain support for a request or course of action.
consultation The influence agent’s asking others for help in directly influencing or planning to influence another person or group.
ingratiation Different forms of making others feel good about themselves.
personal appeal Helping another person because you like them and they asked for your help.
exchange Give-and-take in which someone does something for you and you do something for them in return.
coalition tactics A group of individuals working together toward a common goal to influence others.
pressure Exerting undue influence on someone to do what you want, or else something undesirable will occur.
legitimating tactics Those that occur when the appeal is based on legitimate or position power.
impression management Actively shaping the way you are perceived by others.
nonverbal impression management Includes the clothes you choose to wear, body language, and your demeanor.
verbal impression management Includes your tone of voice, rate of speech, what you choose to say and how you say it.
behavior impression management Includes how you perform on the job and how you interact with others.
upward influence The ability to influence your boss and others in positions higher than yours.
downward influence The ability to influence those in positions lower than yours.
political skill Peoples’ interpersonal style, including their ability to relate well to others, self-monitor, alter their reactions depending upon the situation they are in, and inspire confidence and trust.
turf wars Members of the organization are engaged in turf wars when they are more concerned about their own area of operations than doing what’s best for the entire organization in the long run.
social networks A map of the relationships between individuals.
social network analysis (SNA) A systematic effort to examine the structure of social relationships in a group.
central connectors People linked to the greatest number of people.
boundary spanners People who connect one network to another within the company or even across organizations.
peripheral specialists People with special expertise that can be drawn upon even though they often work independently of the group.
strong ties Ties that often indicate emotional support, not just informational support between people.
weak ties Ties characterized by less frequent interaction and often do not have as much emotional attachment, but they are also easier to maintain, and therefore people can have more of them.
organizational structure How individual and teamwork within an organization is coordinated.
centralization The degree to which decision making authority is concentrated at higher levels in an organization.
formalization The extent to which policies, procedures, job descriptions, and rules are written and explicitly articulated.
tall structures An organization where there are several layers of management between frontline employees and the top level.
flat structures An organization with few layers, often with large numbers of employees reporting to a single manager.
span of control The number of employees reporting to a single manager.
functional structures Grouping of jobs based on similarity in functions.
divisional structures Grouping of jobs based on the products, services, customers, or geographic locations the company is serving.
mechanistic structures Structures that resemble a bureaucracy and are highly formalized and centralized.
organic structures Flexible and decentralized structures with low levels of formalization where communication lines are more fluid and flexible.
matrix organizations A cross between a traditional functional structure with a product structure. Specifically, employees reporting to department managers are also pooled together to form project or product teams.
unity of command A situation where each person reports to a single manager. Traditional organizations are based on the principle of unity of command, while matrix organizations do not follow this principle.
boundaryless organization A term coined by Jack Welch of GE and refers to an organization that eliminates traditional barriers between departments as well as barriers between the organization and the external environment.
modular organization An organization where all the nonessential functions are outsourced.
strategic alliances A form of boundaryless design where two or more companies find an area of collaboration and combine their efforts to create a partnership that is beneficial for both parties.
learning organization An organization where acquiring knowledge and changing behavior as a result of the newly acquired knowledge is part of an
organizational change The movement of an organization from one state of affairs to another.
active resistance The most negative reaction to a proposed change attempt.
passive resistance Being disturbed by changes without necessarily voicing these opinions.
compliance Going along with proposed changes with little enthusiasm.
enthusiastic support Defenders of the new way and actually encourage others around them to give support to the change effort as well.
unfreezing Or making sure that organizational members are ready for and receptive to change, is the first step in Lewin’s suggested change model.
change Or executing the planned changes, is the second phase of Lewin’s change model.
refreezing The final stage of Lewin’s change model, involves ensuring that change becomes permanent and the new habits, rules, or procedures become the norm.
ringi system Involves proposals at lower levels being signed and passed along to higher level management in an effort to build consensus.
organizational culture A system of shared assumptions, values, and beliefs showing people what is appropriate and inappropriate behavior.
assumptions Taken for granted beliefs about human nature and reality.
values Shared principles, standards, and goals.
artifacts The visible and tangible elements of culture.
innovative cultures Cultures that are flexible, adaptable, and experiment with new ideas.
aggressive cultures Cultures that value competitiveness and outperforming competitors.
outcome-oriented cultures Cultures that emphasize achievement, results, and action as important values.
stable cultures Cultures that are predictable, rule oriented, and bureaucratic.
people-oriented cultures Cultures that value fairness, supportiveness, and respecting individual rights.
team-oriented cultures Cultures that are collaborative and emphasize cooperation among employees.
detail-oriented cultures Cultures that emphasize precision and paying attention to details.
service culture A culture that emphasizes high quality service.
safety culture A culture that emphasizes safety as a strong workplace norm.
strong culture A culture that is shared by organizational members.
subculture A set of values unique to a limited cross-section of the organization.
counterculture Shared values and beliefs that are in direct opposition to the values of the broader organizational culture.
onboarding The process through which new employees learn the attitudes, knowledge, skills, and behaviors required to function effectively within an organization.
formal orientation program Program that indoctrinates new employees to the company culture, and introduces them to their new jobs and colleagues.
mentors Trusted people who provide employees with advice and support regarding career-related matters.
mission statement A statement of purpose, describing who the company is and what it does.
rituals Repetitive activities within an organization that have symbolic meaning.
Created by: budapestwm2010