Save
Busy. Please wait.
or

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
or

Username is available taken
show password

why


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
We do not share your email address with others. It is only used to allow you to reset your password. For details read our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.


Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.
focusNode
Didn't know it?
click below
 
Knew it?
click below
Don't know
Remaining cards (0)
Know
0:00
share
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

Hist.Ling. Semantics

Concepts in types of Semantic Change

Type of change:Def. Type of semantic change
(example of Metonomy) Span. Port. cadera, cadeira < ‘buttocks’ < (Lat.) cathedra
Traugott's Theory On 3 main components of Semantic Change: & Directionality of change: 1) (Propositional;= Literal meaning 'while' = during) 2) (Textual: =Connections to next discours, Concessive 'while') > 3) Expressive: speakers presentation of his/her opinion using expressive phrase 'I feel' )
Semantic Change Process: Stage 1: a 'A' . Stage 2: a 'A', 'B' (A >A, B). Stage 3: a 'B' (A, B > B)
Examples of Polysematic Stages of Semantic Change: Eng & Ger 1) Pto.Grmc. a= *tem-ram 2)Eng. a=timber,A= Building, B=building material. 3)A=timber, B='material for building' ('building' lost!)
Name the Commonality in Semantic Change processe... A transitionary stage of Polysemy. Synchronic Variation
3 emphasized emphasis of Semantic change: -Polysemy -Prototype model -Networks of Overlapping Meaning
Historical Factors Outside of Language that can contribute to Semantic Change: -Technology -Society (sociology, politics) -Religion....
Historical (non-Linguistic) Cause of Semantic Change (give example) 1) (Lat. 'penna' = feather) 2) Old.Fr.(>Eng) 'penne'= pen
Example of Semantic Changes as result of Historical circumstances: Spanish: 'león' = 'lion' (Spain) but 'cougar' (parts of Latin America)
(Traugott, Dasher, Sweester, Hopper, König)'s Principles (1&2): 1) Semantically Related Words often undergoe parallel Semantic Shifts...(eng.dial: 'lie/lay')
Traugott, Dasher, Sweester, Hopper, König)'s Principles (3&4): 2) Phonetic Similairity, especially homophones, can lead to thesimilar forms becomming semantically more similar.. 3) Spatial Terms may develop temporal sense.. 4) Some semantic changes often go in only 1 direction...
Examples of types of semantic shifts that typically go in one direction (Pt.1): words related to: Sense of Touch > Sense of Taste. ('sharp', 'hot', 'crisp')
Examples of types of semantic shifts that typically go in one direction (pt.2, pt3): 2)'Taste' words > 'Emotion' words 3) Obligation > Probability: "Deontic" >"Epistemic" meaning
Define "Deontic" vs "Epistemic" > "Deontic" = Requirement- Permission-Ability. >"Epistemic": 'speakers assesment', probability.
(Define) "Propositional" > "Textual" >"Propositional": describes context, concession, from temporal meaning. 'while'=during... >"Textual": specific temporal reference, 'at that time'
common "physical senses" based semantic shifts: 1)"see" > Comprehension 2) "hear" > Obey
Physical Action Verbs >Mental State name kind of semantic shift: 'grasp', 'get' 'feel', 'apture' Romance; pensare <pesare (Latin) 'to weigh'
Traugott's broad explanations of Tendancies in Senatic change: (1 of 3) 1) meanings based on: External Situation >Internal situation (Evaluative/ Perceptual/Cognitive)-Degeneration, Elevation
Traugott's broad explanations of Tendancies in Senatic change: (2 of 3) Meanings based on External, or internal situations > Meanings based on Textual, or Meta linguistic situations. (While >concessive), (Physical Action Verbs >Mental State Verbs) (Mental State Verbs > Speech Act Verbs)
Examples of Semantic Shift changing meaning from more concrete, to more abstract: -Body parts becoming terms for more abstract meanings; Capitum (head) >Capital, Capo di (something), Cape (geographical), Captain, Caption....
Traugott & Dasher "Invited Inferencing Theory of Semantic Change" >Polysemy Central, & arises from: a) 'Invited Inferences': b) 'Subjectification': speakers develope meaning that 'Externalizes' perspectives and additudes.
(from Invited Inferencing Theory of Semantic Change) Invited Inferences are: (Name type of Semantic use/change) -Arise in the pragmetic use of lang in given context. ex; 'as long as' 'so long as'... were origionally only spatial terms. >Conditional term, Concessive. (now exist in Polysemy, but in some contexts> only conditional )
(From Invited Inferencing theory of Semantic change) Examples of 'Subjectification': (name force: & Theory) Speaker comes to develope meanings for words that externalize perspectives and additudes as constrained by the world of Speech Event, instead of real world. ex: 'indeed' in + deed (in action) >(certainly). ex; "I'm sure that..."
(From Invited Inferencing theory of Semantic change) Examples of 'Invited Inference': (Name force: & Theory) Speakers make pragmetic use of language in given context. ex: 'as long as' (Spatial) > (Temporal).
Widening (Generalization, Extension, Broadening) Range of meanings for a word increases, to include additional, more broad concepts. Word becomes less specific.
Metonomy: Slight shift in meaning to mean something that is closely related, but not exactly
 

 



Voices

Use these flashcards to help memorize information. Look at the large card and try to recall what is on the other side. Then click the card to flip it. If you knew the answer, click the green Know box. Otherwise, click the red Don't know box.

When you've placed seven or more cards in the Don't know box, click "retry" to try those cards again.

If you've accidentally put the card in the wrong box, just click on the card to take it out of the box.

You can also use your keyboard to move the cards as follows:

If you are logged in to your account, this website will remember which cards you know and don't know so that they are in the same box the next time you log in.

When you need a break, try one of the other activities listed below the flashcards like Matching, Snowman, or Hungry Bug. Although it may feel like you're playing a game, your brain is still making more connections with the information to help you out.

To see how well you know the information, try the Quiz or Test activity.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
Retries:
restart all cards