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OT LPN Endocrine

Glands, hormones, and stuff

Anterior Pituitary Gland (Adenohypophysis) Produces 6 hormones: Growth hormone(GH), Prolactin, Thyroid-stimulating hormone(TSH), Adrenocorticotropic hormone(ACTH), Follicle-stimulating hormone(FSH), Luteinizing hormone(LH)
Posterior Pituitary Gland (Neurohypophysis) Stores 2 hormones produced by Hypothalamus: Antidiuretic hormone(ADH), Oxytocin
Thyroid Gland Has 2 lobes connected by an isthmus. Produces 3 hormones: Triiodothyronine(T3), Tetraiodonthyronine(T4), Calcitonin. Requires iodine to synthesize T3 and T4.
Parathyroid Gland Produces 1 hormone: Parathyroid hormone(PTH)
Adrenal Medulla Inner region of Adrenal Gland. Produces Catecholamines: Epinephrine, Norepinephrine
Adrenal Cortex Outer region of Adrenal Gland. Produces Steroids: Glucocorticoids(Cortisol), Mineralocorticoids(Aldosterone), Sex hormones(primarily testosterone)
Steroids Lipid-soluble hormones made from cholesterol.
Pancreas Islets of Langerhans produce hormones. Beta cells produce the hormone Insulin. Alpha cells produce the hormone Glucagon
Ovaries Produce Estrogens and Progesterone
Testes Produces Testosterone
Thymus Gland Secretes Thymosins. Shrinks after puberty.
Pineal Gland Secretes Melatonin. The biological clock.
Melanocyte-stimulating hormone(MSH) Produced by small, third lobe of pituitary gland. Stimulates the melanocytes in the skin, thereby darkening skin color.
Hypothalamus Controls the anterior pituitary gland. Secretes Releasing hormones or Release-inhibiting hormones which either stimulate or inhibit the secretion of anterior pituitary hormones.
Hypothalamic-hypophyseal Portal System Network of capillaries that connect the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary gland
Growth hormone (GH). Also called somatotropin or somatotropic hormone. Secreted by anterior pituitary gland. Primarily effects growth of skeletal muscles & long bones. Causes amino acids to be built into proteins, fats to be broken down & used for energy, & stimulates conversion of protein to glucose.
Prolactin (PRL) Secreted by anterior pituitary gland. Also called lactogenic hormone. Target organs are mammary glands. Stimulates breast development and breast milk production.
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) Secreted by anterior pituitary gland. Also called thyrotropin. The target gland for this tropic hormone is the thyroid gland. Stimulates thyroid gland to produce T3 and T4
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) Secreted by anterior pituitary gland. The target gland for this tropic hormone is the adrenal cortex. Stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete steroids, especially cortisol.
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) Secreted by anterior pituitary gland. The target glands for this tropic hormone are the gonads. Stimulates the development of the ova and the sperm.
Luteinizing hormone (LH) Secreted by anterior pituitary gland. The target glands for this tropic hormone are the gonads. Causes ovulation & causes the secretion of progesterone (females) & testosterone (males). Also called interstitial cell-stimulating hormone (ICSH) in males.
Tropic hormones Hormones that are aimed at and control other glands. TSH, ACTH, FSH, and LH are included in this group.
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) Also called vasopressin. Released from the posterior pituitary gland but produced by the hypothalamus. Primary target organs are the kidneys. Stimulates water reabsorption by kidneys. Also causes the blood vessels to constrict, raising blood pressure.
Oxytocin Released from the posterior pituitary gland but produced by the hypothalamus. Target organs are mammary glands and uterus. Contracts uterine muscles during labor and stimulates mammary glands to release milk.
Triiodothyronine (T3) Secreted by the thyroid gland follicular cells. Controls metabolic rate and regulates growth and development. More effective of the two "T#" thyroid hormones.
Tetraiodonthyronine (T4) Secreted by the thyroid gland follicular cells. Also called thyroxine. Controls metabolic rate and regulates growth and development. More abundant of the two "T#" thyroid hormones.
Calcitonin Secreted by the thyroid gland parafollicular cells. Antagonistic to PTH. Decreases blood calcium levels. Stimulates osteoblastic activity when blood is hypercalcemic.
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) Secreted by the parathyroid glands. Target organs are bone, intestines, & kidneys. Antagonistic to calcitonin. Increases blood calcium levels. Stimulates osteoclastic activity when blood is hypocalcemic. Also causes phosphaturic effect.
Hypothyroidism Thyroid hormone deficiency. In an infant causes cretinism(fails to develop physically and mentally). In an adult causes myxedema(slowed-down metabolic state).
Hyperthyroidism Excess amounts of thyroid hormones. Results in a sped-up metabolic rate. Common form is Graves' disease which is characterized by bulging eyes.
Catecholamines Secreted by adrenal medulla: Includes Epinephrine(adrenaline) & Norepinephrine. Stimulates the "fight or flight" response.
Cortisol Steroid secreted by adrenal cortex. The primary glucocorticoid that helps regulate glucose, fat, & protein metabolism; part of the stress response. Secretion stimulated by ACTH secreted by anterior pituitary gland.
Aldosterone Steroid secreted by adrenal cortex. Primary target organs are kidneys. This chief mineralocorticoid causes the kidneys to reabsorb sodium & water and secrete potassium; helps regulate fluid & electrolyte balance.
Islets of Langerhans The hormone-secreting cells of the pancreas. The alpha cells secrete glucagon. The beta cells secrete insulin.
Testosterone Primarily secreted by the testes but also in small amounts by the adrenal cortex. The chief male androgen; stimulates development of sperm & the secondary sex characteristics in the male.
Estrogens and Progesterone Primarily secreted by ovaries. Estrogen also secreted by adrenal cortex in small amounts. These hormones stimulate the development of the ova & development of secondary sex characteristics in the female.
Insulin Secreted by the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. Lowers blood glucose; helps regulate the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.
Glucagon Secreted by the alpha cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. Raises blood glucose.
Thymosins Secreted by thymus gland. Stimulates the maturation of the T-lymphocytes.
Melatonin Secreted by the pineal gland and helps set biorhythms. Secretion is lowest during the day & highest at night. Causes drowsiness.
Myxedema A deficiency in thyroid hormone in adults that causes a decrease in metabolism.
Graves' disease A form of hyperthyroidism that causes an increase in metabolism.
Diabetes Insipidus A deficiency in ADH causing a patient to urinate approximately 5 to 6 liters of pale, dilute urine per day; up to 25 liters in severe cases.
Glucocorticoids A hormone that predominantly affects the metabolism of carbohydrates. They also control gluconeogenesis & help maintain blood glucose levels between meals. Cortisol is the primary hormone belonging to this group.
Mineralocorticoids A group of hormones that regulate the body's balance of water and electrolytes, especially NaCl(salt). Aldosterone is the most important hormone belonging to this group.
Regulation of thyroid activity Hypothalamus secretes releasing hormone to anterior pituitary-> Anterior pituitary to secrete TSH-> TSH stimulates thyroid gland to secrete T3 and T4. Negative feedback prevents further secretion of TSH once there are enough thyroid hormones in the blood.
Goiter An enlargement of the thyroid gland. Can be caused by an iodine deficient diet.
Addison's disease A deficiency of adrenal steroids (Glucocorticoids, Mieralocorticoids, Sex hormones)characterized by generalized weakness, muscle atrophy, severe loss of fluids and electrolytes, and a bronzing skin tone. Can develop into adrenal-shock.
Cushing's syndrome An excess amount of adrenal steroids (Glucocorticoids, Mieralocorticoids, Sex hormones)characterized by trunkal obesity, moon face, buffalo hump, virilization, hirsutism, bone loss, muscle weakness, and thin skin that bruises easily.
Diabetes mellitus A deficiency of insulin. Yeah, there's too much on this to fit here so I hope you read your book (pages 255, 256, & 259).
Pheochromocytoma A tumor of the adrenal medulla that causes life-threatening high blood pressure.
Hypocalcemic Tetany Causes sustained contractions(tetany) of the wrist muscles, the muscles of the larynx(laryngospasm), & the breathing muscles.
Circadian Rhythm A pattern that repeats every 24 hours.
Gonadotropins Hormones secreted by the anterior pituitary gland that are aimed at and control the gonads(ovaries & testes). FSH(follicle-stimulating hormone) and LH(luteinizing hormone).
Cretinism A deficiency of thyroid hormone during fetal development, causing a profound physical and mental developmental delay.
Infundibulum The stalk of the pituitary gland.
Created by: 100000135065032



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