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Ch. 6 - Key Terms

Network Fundamentals / Ch. 6 - TCP/IP Transport, Applications, and Security

Term Definition
Anti-x The term used by Cisco to refer to a variety of security tools that help prevent various attacks, including antivirus, anti-phishing, and anti-spam.
connection establishment The process by which a connection-oriented protocol creates a connection. With TCP, a connection is established by a three-way transmission of TCP segments.
DoS A type of attack whose goal is to cause problems by preventing legitimate users from being able to access services, thereby preventing the normal operation of computers and networks.
error detection The process of discovering whether or not a data-link level frame was changed during transmission. This process typically uses a Frame Check Sequence (FCS) field in the data-link trailer.
error recovery The process of noticing when some transmitted data was not successfully received and resending the data until it is successfully received.
firewall A device that forwards packets between the less secure and more secure parts of the network, applying rules that determine which packets are allowed to pass, and which are not.
flow control The process of regulating the amount of data sent by a sending computer toward a receiving computer. Several flow control mechanisms exist, including TCP flow control, which uses windowing.
forward acknowledgment A process used by protocols that do error recovery in which the number that acknowledges data lists the next data that should be sent, not the last data that was successfully received.
HTTP Hypertext Transfer Protocol. The protocol used by web browsers and web servers to transfer files, such as text and graphic files.
Intrusion Detection System A security function that examines more complex traffic patterns against a list of both known attack signatures and general characteristics of how attacks may be carried out, rating each perceived threat and reporting the threats.
Intrusion Prevention System A security function that examines more complex traffic patterns against a list of both known attack signatures and general characteristics, rating each perceived threat and reacting to prevent the more significant threats.
ordered data transfer A networking function, included in TCP, in which the protocol defines how the sending host should number the data transmitted, defines how the receiving device should attempt to reorder the data if it arrives out of order.
port In TCP and UDP, a number that is used to uniquely identify the application process that either sent (source port) or should receive (destination port) data. In LAN switching, another term for switch interface.
Positive Acknowledgment and Retransmission (PAR) A generic reference to how the error recovery feature works in many protocols (e.g.TCP) in which the receiver must send an ACK that data was recieved or lost.
segment In TCP, a term used to describe a TCP header and its encapsulated data (also called an L4PDU). Also in TCP, the process of accepting a large chunk of data from the application layer and breaking it into smaller pieces that fit into TCP segments.
sliding windows For protocols such as TCP that allow the receiving device to dictate the amount of data the sender can send before receiving an ACK (i.e. window) Typically a number that grows upwards slowly after each acknowledgment, sliding upward.
URL Universal Resource Locator. A standard for how to refer to any piece of information retrievable via a TCP/IP network, most notably used to identify web pages, e.g.; http://www.cisco.com/.
virtual private network The process of securing communication between two devices whose packets pass over some public and unsecured network, typically the Internet. VPNs encrypt packets so that the communication is private and authenticate the identity of the endpoints.
VoIP Voice over IP. The transport of voice traffic inside IP packets over an IP network.
web server Software, running on some computer, that stores web pages and sends those web pages to web clients (web browsers) that request the web pages.
Created by: k3ntucky