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barry patho GI final

The GI tract is a continuous tube from the *** to the *** mouth to the anus
This substance initiates carbohydrate metabolism in the mouth and stomach amylase
Salivary glands are regulated by homones. true or false False they are regulated by the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems. beta adrenergic stimulation increases salivationAtropine (anticholinergic)drys the mouth
How do we obtain nutrients ingestion digestion absorption
ingestion chewing and swallowing-mechanical digestion
digestion transform nutrients into very small particles-chemical digestion
absorption goes into circulation via the portal and lymph system from the small intestine (lg intest. just absorbs H2O)
Propulsion swallowing movements of the tongue and pharyngeal constrictors propel the food bolus into the esophagus
paristalsis sequential waves of muscular contractions that travel down the esophagus and are preceded by receptive waves of relaxation(also in stomach small and large intestine)
the function of the esophagus to connect the oral cavity to the gastric cavity
peristaltic contractions influenced by neural and hormonal activity occurs in the stomach retropulsion mixing food w/ digestive juices (chyme)and empyting of food through pyloris (also mechanical)
true or false all parts of nutrients receive mechanical digestion True
true or false there is digestion that takes place in the esophogus False
mechanical digestion mastication(mouth),segmentation(sm intest.), churning(stomach)- contraction and movement inside a cavity either by teeth or muscles-not selective
Chemical digestion reducing the size and or complexity of food molecules using digestive enzymes(stomach and sm intestine)
2nd digestion of carbs and 1st digestion of proteins (location) Stomach
HCL denaturation of proteins in the stomach
pepsin digests protein peptide bond
3 types of cells in the stomach mucous, chief, parietal
mucous cells secrete mucous to cover lining of the stomach to protect against own digestive enzymes located close to the opening
chief cells(zymogenic) secret pepsinogen- not active, HCL converts to pepsin
parietal cells produce HCL and intrinsic factor
***is required for absoption of vit B12 needed to form erythrocytes intrinsic factor
decreased vit B12 causes pernicious anemia
**** and **** can interfere w/ absorption of vit B12 and cause anemia gastritus and peptic ulcers
The***allows chyme to empty slowly into the small intestine(duodenum), as not to let too much acid into an alkaline env't too quickly Pyloric valve
Layers of the stomach from outside to inside Serosa(visceral peritoneum and connective tissue layer), muscularis, submucossa, mucosa
Muscularis layer of the stomach outer to inner longitudnal, circular, oblique
mucosa layer of the stomach outer to inner muscularis mucosa, lamina propria, mucous epithelium
gastric glands contained in the mucosa surface mucous cells, mucous neck cells, parietal cells, chief cells, endocrine cells
pyloric gland secretes the hormone gastrin from G cells
Enterochromaffin-like cells secrete histamine
D cells secrete somatostatin
gastric pit A common duct stomach glands empty into
microvilli contain 3 vessels what are they arterial and venous cappillary and lymph (lacteal)
Salivary glands parotid, submandibular, sublingual
2 hhepatic ducts from the liver combine to form the common hepatic duct
common hepatic duct combines with cystic duct from gall bladder to form the common bile duct
the common bile duct and the pacreatic duct combine to form the hepatopancreatic ampula
the hepatopancreatic ampulla empties into the Duodenum at the major duodenal papilla
The head of the pancreas is located near*** and the tail is near the *** the duodenum and the spleen
parts of the small intestine duodenum, jejunum, and ileum
The liver produces bile which contains salts necessary for fat absorbtion. It is stored in the gallbladder
The exocrine portion( of the pancreas produces alkaline fluid that neutralizes chyme, creating a duodenal ph that supports enzymatic action
Why is the pancreas known as a dual organ? It has exocrine(enzymes) and endocrine(insulin) functions
enzymes from acini and a network of ducts in the pancreas empty into***which empties into the common bile duct at*** the pancreatic duct (Wirsung)and ampulla of Vater
Icterus(jaundice) yellow or greenish pigmentation caused by hyperbilirubinemia can be cused by an obstruction of the bile ducts or liver cells.
bile leaves the liver by way of the hepatic duct
bile leaves and enters the gall bladder by way of the cystic duct
muscles in the wall of the small intestine circular and longitudnal
****allows bile to enter the gall bladder from the liver via cystic duct, prevents reflux of duodenal contents, and controls flow into the duodenum sphincter of odi
function of bile emulsification of fats
THe four lobes of the liver quadrate, caudate, left, and right(largest)
T/F the superior portion of the liver is in contact with the diaphragm and the gall bladder is located in the inferior region btwn the Right lobe and the quadrate lobe True
T/F The liver is the largest organ in the abdominal cavity and it is retroperitoneal False-it is the largest organ, but it is intra peritoneal
Functions of the liver Vascular- to store and filter bloodMetabolic-concerned with most of the metabolic systems of the bodySecretory-bile formation and secretionExcretory
THe location of the liver? Superior border @ the 4th ICS in the R upper quadrant (hypochondriac region)
Seperates the Right and left lobes Falciform ligament
Functional unit of the liver liver lobule
Hepatic triad on the outside of the lobule Bile duct, Hepatic portal vein, Hepatic artery
Each liver lobule is formed of plates of ***which are the functional cells of the liver hepatocytes
The*** are capillaries that receive a mixture of arterial and venous blood from branches of the hepatic art and portal vein Sinusoids
Blood from the sinusoids drains into the central vein in each lobule
venous blood from all the central veins drains into the **** and then into the *** hepatic vein and IVC
bile canaliculli are adjacent to hepatocytes in a lobule, which produce the bile, conduct bile outward while the blood flow is toward the inside T/F true
Kupffer cells part of the immune system clean and destroy invaders--phagocytic macrophages--no more than 1% of the bacteria entering through the portal system willexit into the hepatic veins
The liver stores a blood volume of *** or **% of the body's total blood volume 450ml or 10%
Every minute ** liter of blood flows sfrom the portal vein into the liver sinusoids and ***ml from the arterial system. Total *** l/min 1.1, 350, 1.45L/min
**% of resting CO and **% of total body blood flow 29% and 33%
Liver converts fructose and galactose into glucose
Sucrose is formed by what 2 monosaccarides Fructose and glucose
Lactose is formed by what 2 monosaccarides glucose and galactose
glucose+glucose forms what disaccharide maltose
Type of carbohydrate that is used for nucleic acids and ATP formation pentose
Type carb used for nutrition hexose
Long chains of maltose glycogen
Determinant of liver fx..converts lactic acid into glucose during anaerobic metabolism Cori Cycle
functions of Fat metabolism in the liver Oxidation of fa to supply energy.Forms lipoproteinsSynthesis of cholesterol and phospholipidsConversion of carbs and protein into fat
~80% of cholesterol is converted into Bile salts
Function of protein metabolism in the liver Deamination of aa. Formation of urea (ammonia removal)Formation of plasma proteins. Transamination
Ammonia comes from the process of deamination and bacteria in the GI tract
Some things the liver excretes Drugs, metabolites of hormones and other body substances, and Ca++ into the bile and feces
vitamins the liver stores A, D, B12 and iron
The liver forms these coag factors fibrinogen, prothrombin, and V, VII, VIII, IX, X, XI, XII, XIII (5, 7-13)
T/F The liver can synthesize the 8 essential aa False the liver can synthesize all the non esential aa by using the transaminases
fuel for the heart fatty acids
Transamination interconversion of one aa into another
Deamination amino group is eliminated as uric acid and removed as urea
gluconeogenesis The liver uses fats and proteins to make glucose
Created by: jenbirne69



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