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WAN and Remote Conn

CIT132 Lan - Chapter 7 WAN and Remote Connectivity

asymmetrical The characteristic of a transmission technology that affords greater bandwidth in one direction (either from the customer to the carrier, or vice versa) than in the other direction.
asymmetrical DSL A variation of DSL that offers more throughput when data travels downstream, downloading from a local carrier’s switching facility to the customer, than when it travels upstream, uploading from the customer to the local carrier’s switching facility.
asynchronous A transmission method in which data being transmitted and received by nodes does not have to conform to any timing scheme. In asynchronous communications, a node can transmit at any time and the destination node must accept the transmission as it comes.
ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) A Data Link layer technology standardized by the ITU in the mid-1990s. ATM relies on fixed packets, called cells, that each consist of 48 bytes of data plus a 5-byte header. ATM relies on virtual circuits and establishes a connection before sending data.
authentication The process of comparing and matching a client’s credentials with the credentials in the NOS user database to enable the client to log on to the network.
B channel In ISDN, the “bearer” channel, so named because it bears traffic from point to point.
bonding The process of combining more than one bearer channel of an ISDN line to increase throughput. For example, BRI’s two 64-Kbps B channels are bonded to create an effective throughput of 128 Kbps.
BRI (Basic Rate Interface) A variety of ISDN that uses two 64-Kbps bearer channels and one 16-Kbps data channel, as summarized by the notation 2B+D. BRI is the most common form of ISDN employed by home users.
broadband cable A method of connecting to the Internet over a cable network. In broadband cable, computers are connected to a cable modem that modulates and demodulates signals to and from the cable company’s head-end.
bus topology WAN A WAN in which each location is connected to no more than two other locations in a serial fashion.
cable drop The fiber-optic or coaxial cable that connects a neighborhood cable node to a customer’s house.
cable modem A device that modulates and demodulates signals for transmission and reception via cable wiring.
cable modem access See broadband cable.
cell A packet of a fixed size. In ATM technology, a cell consists of 48 bytes of data plus a 5-byte header.
CIR (committed information rate) The guaranteed minimum amount of bandwidth selected when leasing a frame relay circuit. Frame relay costs are partially based on CIR.
CO (central office) The location where a local or long-distance telephone service provider terminates and interconnects customer lines.
credentials A user’s unique identifying characteristics that enable him to authenticate with a server and gain access to network resources. The most common type of credentials are a user name and password.
CSU (channel service unit) A device used with T-carrier technology that provides termination for the digital signal and ensures connection integrity through error correction and line monitoring. Typically, a CSU is combined with a DSU in a single device, a CSU/DSU.
CSU/DSU A combination of a CSU (channel service unit) and a DSU (data service unit) that serves as the connection point for a T1 line at the customer’s site. Most modern CSU/DSUs also contain a multiplexer.
D channel In ISDN, the “data” channel is used to carry information about the call, such as session initiation and termination signals, caller identity, call forwarding, and conference calling signals.
dedicated A continuously available link or service that is leased through another carrier. Examples of dedicated lines include ADSL, T1, and T3.
dial-up A type of connection in which a user connects to a distant network from a computer and stays connected for a finite period of time. Most of the time, the term dial-up refers to a connection that uses a PSTN line.
dial-up networking The process of dialing into a remote access server to connect with a network, be it private or public.
downstream A term used to describe data traffic that flows from a carrier’s facility to the customer.
DS0 (digital signal, level 0) The equivalent of one data or voice channel in T-carrier technology, as defined by ANSI physical layer standards. All other signal levels are multiples of DS0.
DSL (digital subscriber line) A dedicated WAN technology that uses advanced data modulation techniques at the Physical layer to achieve extraordinary throughput over regular phone lines. DSL comes in several different varieties, the most common of which is asymmetric DSL (ADSL).
DSL modem A device that demodulates an incoming DSL signal, extracting the information and passing it to the data equipment (such as telephones and computers) and modulates an outgoing DSL signal.
DSLAM (DSL access multiplexer) A connectivity device located at a telecommunications carrier’s office that aggregates multiple DSL subscriber lines and connects them to a larger carrier or to the Internet backbone.
DSU (data service unit) A device used in T-carrier technology that converts the digital signal used by bridges, routers, and multiplexers into the digital signal used on cabling. Typically, a DSU is combined with a CSU in a single device, a CSU/DSU.
E1 A digital carrier standard used in Europe that offers 30 channels and a maximum of 2.048-Mbps throughput.
E3 A digital carrier standard used in Europe that offers 480 channels and a maximum of 34.368-Mbps throughput.
fiber to the home A carrier’s provision of fiber-optic connections to residential end users for dramatically increased throughput and a better range of services.
fractional T1 An arrangement that allows a customer to lease only some of the channels on a T1 line.
frame relay A digital, packet-switched WAN technology whose protocols operate at the Data Link layer. The name is derived from the fact that data is separated into frames, which are then relayed from one node to another without any verification or processing.
full-mesh WAN A version of the mesh topology WAN in which every site is directly connected to every other site. Full-mesh WANs are the most fault-tolerant type of WAN.
head-end A cable company’s central office, which connects cable wiring to many nodes before it reaches customers’ sites.
HFC (hybrid fiber-coax) A link that consists of fiber cable connecting the cable company’s offices to a node location near the customer and coaxial cable connecting the node to the customer’s house.
hybrid fiber-coax See HFC.
ICA (Independent Computing Architecture) client The software from Citrix Systems, Inc., that, when installed on a client, enables the client to connect with a host computer and exchange keystrokes, mouse clicks, and screen updates.
ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) An international standard that uses PSTN lines to carry digital signals. It specifies protocols at the Physical, Data Link, and Transport layers of the OSI model. ISDN lines may carry voice/data signals simultaneously. Two types BRI and PRI
J1 A digital carrier standard used in Japan that offers 24 channels and 1.544-Mbps throughput.
J3 A digital carrier standard used in Japan that offers 480 channels and 32.064-Mbps throughput.
L2TP (Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol) A protocol that encapsulates PPP data, for use on VPNs. L2TP is based on Cisco technology and is standardized by the IETF.
LANE (LAN Emulation) A method for transporting token ring or Ethernet frames over ATM networks. LANE encapsulates incoming Ethernet or token ring frames, then converts them into ATM cells for transmission over an ATM network.
local loop The part of a phone system that connects a customer site with a telecommunications carrier’s switching facility.
mesh topology WAN A type of WAN in which several sites are directly interconnected. Mesh WANs are highly fault tolerant because they provide multiple routes for data to follow between any two points.
NIU (network interface unit) The point at which PSTN-owned lines terminate at a customer’s premises. The NIU is usually located at the demarc.
NSP (network service provider) A carrier that provides long-distance (and often global) connectivity between major data-switching centers across the Internet. AT&T, Verizon, and Sprint are all examples of network service providers in the United States.
NT1 (Network Termination 1) A device used on ISDN networks that connects the incoming twisted pair wiring with the customer’s ISDN terminal equipment.
NT2 (Network Termination 2) An additional connection device required on PRI to handle the multiple ISDN lines between the customer’s network termination connection and the local phone company’s wires.
OC (Optical Carrier) An internationally recognized rating that indicates throughput rates for SONET connections.
open source The term that describes software that is developed and packaged by individuals and made available to anyone, without licensing fees. Open source software is not owned by any one company
partial-mesh WAN A version of a mesh topology WAN in which only critical sites are directly interconnected and secondary sites are connected through star or ring topologies. Partial mesh WANs are less expensive to implement than full mesh WANs.
permanent virtual circuit See PVC.
PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) A communications protocol that enables a workstation to connect to a server using a serial connection. PPP can support multiple Network layer protocols and can use both asynchronous/synchronous communications. It performs compression and error correction
PPPoE (Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet) PPP running over an Ethernet network.
PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) A Layer 2 protocol developed by Microsoft that encapsulates PPP data for transmission over VPN connections. PPTP operates with Windows RRAS access services and can accept connections from multiple different clients.
PRI (Primary Rate Interface) A type of ISDN that uses 23 bearer channels and one 64-Kbps data channel, represented by the notation 23B+D. PRI is less commonly used by individual subscribers than BRI, but it may be used by businesses and other organizations needing more throughput.
PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network) The network of lines and carrier equipment that provides telephone service to most homes and businesses. Now, except for the local loop, nearly all of the PSTN uses digital transmission.
PVC (permanent virtual circuit) A point-to-point connection over which data may follow any number of different paths, as opposed to a dedicated line that follows a predefined path. X.25, frame relay, and some forms of ATM use PVCs.
RAS (Remote Access Service) The dial-up networking software provided with Microsoft Windows 95, 98, NT, and 2000 client operating systems.
RDP (Remote Desktop Protocol) An Application layer protocol that uses TCP/IP to transmit graphics and text quickly over a remote client–host connection. RDP also carries session, licensing, and encryption information.
remote access A method for connecting and logging on to a LAN from a workstation that is remote, or not physically connected, to the LAN.
Remote Desktop A feature of Windows operating systems that allows a computer to act as a remote host and be controlled from a client running another Windows operating system.
ring topology WAN A type of WAN in which each site is connected to two other sites so that the entire WAN forms a ring pattern.
Routing and Remote Access Service (RRAS) The software included with Windows 2000 Server, XP, Vista, Server 2003, and Server 2008 operating systems that enables a server to act as a router, firewall, and remote access server.
SDH (Synchronous Digital Hierarchy) The international equivalent of SONET.
self-healing A characteristic of dual-ring topologies that allows them to automatically reroute traffic along the backup ring if the primary ring becomes severed.
Serial Line Internet Protocol See SLIP.
signal level An ANSI standard for T-carrier technology that refers to its Physical layer electrical signaling characteristics. DS0 is the equivalent of one data or voice channel. All other signal levels are multiples of DS0.
SLIP (Serial Line Internet Protocol) A communications protocol that enables a workstation to connect to a server using a serial connection. SLIP can support only asynchronous communications and IP traffic and requires some configuration on the client workstation.
smart jack A termination for T-carrier wire pairs that is located at the customer demark and which functions as a connection protection and monitoring point.
SONET (Synchronous Optical Network) A high-bandwidth WAN signaling technique that specifies framing and multiplexing techniques at the Physical layer of the OSI model. It can integrate many other WAN technologies (for example, T-carriers, ISDN, and ATM technology) High Fault-tolerance!
star topology WAN A type of WAN in which a single site acts as the central connection point for several other points. This arrangement provides separate routes for data between any two sites; however, if the central connection point fails, the entire WAN fails.
SVC (switched virtual circuit) A logical, point-to-point connection that relies on switches to determine the optimal path between sender and receiver. ATM technology uses SVCs.
symmetrical A characteristic of transmission technology that provides equal throughput for data traveling both upstream and downstream and is suited to users who both upload and download significant amounts of data.
symmetrical DSL A variation of DSL that provides equal throughput both upstream and downstream between the customer and the carrier.
synchronous A transmission method in which data being transmitted and received by nodes must conform to a timing scheme.
T1 A digital carrier standard used in North America and most of Asia that provides 1.544-Mbps throughput and 24 channels for voice, data, video, or audio signals. T1s rely on time division multiplexing
T3 A digital carrier standard used in North America and most of Asia that can carry the equivalent of 672 channels for voice, data, video, or audio, with a maximum data throughput of 44.736 Mbps T3s rely on time division multiplexing
T-carrier The term for any kind of leased line that follows the standards for T1s, fractional T1s, T1Cs, T2s, T3s, or T4s.
TA (terminal adapter) A device used to convert digital signals into analog signals for use with ISDN phones and other analog devices. TAs are sometimes called ISDN modems.
TE (terminal equipment) The end nodes (such as computers and printers) served by the same connection (such as an ISDN, DSL, or T1 link).
thin client A client that relies on another host for the majority of processing and hard disk resources necessary to run applications and share files over the network.
tiered topology WAN A type of WAN in which sites that are connected in star or ring formations are interconnected at different levels, with the interconnection points being organized into layers to form hierarchical groupings.
tunnel A secured, virtual connection between two nodes on a VPN.
tunneling The process of encapsulating one type of protocol in another. Tunneling is the way in which higher-layer data is transported over VPNs by Layer 2 protocols.
upstream A term used to describe data traffic that flows from a customer’s site to a carrier’s facility.
virtual circuit A connection between network nodes that, although based on potentially disparate physical links, logically appears to be a direct, dedicated link between those nodes.
VNC (virtual network computing) An open source system that enables a remote client (or viewer) workstation to manipulate and receive screen updates from a host. Examples of VNC software include RealVNC, TightVNC, and UltraVNC.
VPN (virtual private network) A logically constructed WAN that uses existing public transmission systems. This network allows an organization to create private WAN through the Internet, serving only its offices, while keeping the data secure and isolated from other (public) traffic.
WAN link A point-to-point connection between two nodes on a WAN.
X.25 An analog, packet-switched WAN technology optimized for reliable, long-distance data transmission and standardized by the ITU in the mid-1970s.
xDSL The term used to refer to all varieties of DSL.
Created by: Leisac