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APWH Unit 3 Vocab


Ming Dynasty China's population would double. Known for its trade expansion to the outside world that established cultural ties with the West,
Forbidden City The walled section of Beijing where emperors lived between
Yongle Chinese emperor during the Ming dynasty who was a key figure in the restoration of China
Eunuchs Castrated males, originally in charge of the harem, who grew to play major roles in government; eunuchs were common in China
Jurchen nomadic people that conquered Khitan, overran northern China, and captured the Song capital. Foot binding.
Manchu a community of hunters, fishermen, and farmers from the lands to the northeast of China
Qing Dynasty the final imperial dynasty in China, lasting from 1644 to 1912. It was an era noted for its initial prosperity and tumultuous final years,
Civil Service Examination an exam based on Confucian teachings that were used to select people for various government service jobs in the nationwide administrative bureaucracy.
Foot Binding a practice first carried out on young girls in Tang Dynasty China to restrict their normal growth and make their feet as small as possible
Filial piety a central virtue that emphasizes love, respect, and support for one's parents and ancestors.
Queue braided hair, the Manchurians forced the Chinese to shave their foreheads and braid their hair as a sign of submission.
Secret Edict a set of moral and governmental instructions promulgated by imperial authority for use in local rituals conducted throughout the Qing
Yongle Encyclopedia a Chinese compilation of information commissioned by the Ming Dynasty emperor Yongle in 1403 and completed by 1408.
Collection of Books Collect books
Complete Library of the Four Treasuries the complete collection of the Qing Dynasty imperial library. The collection includes 3,461 books in 36,381 volumes.
Bannermen Hereditary military servants of the Qing Empire
Nurhaci architect of Manchu unity; created distinctive Manchu banner armies
Kangxi an effective ruler who conquered Taiwan and extended his control into Central Asia and Tibet, and Qianlong
Qianlong the sixth emperor of the Manchu-led Qing Dynasty, and the fourth Qing emperor to rule over China proper.
Zheng He Muslim Chinese navigator, diplomat, and explorer. major tool of the empire when it strove to create beneficial, tributary relationships with other countries, such as India.
Matteo Ricci An Italian Jesuit who by his knowledge of Astronomy and science was accepted as a missionary of China.
Czar (Tsar) Russian title for a monarch was first used in reference to a Russian ruler by Ivan III.
Romanovs Russian imperial line that ruled from 1613 to 1917(Revolution) Khan of the North.
Boyars group of Russian noblemen who were given privileged offices and responsibilities in the Russian Empire.
Sudebnik The legal code crafted by Ivan III that further consolidated his power and outlined harsh punishments for disobedience
Zemskii Sobor divine right. Belief that a rulers authority comes directly from god.
St. Basil’s Cathedral A church in Red Square in Moscow, Russia. Built from 1555-61 on orders from Ivan the Terrible and commemorates the capture of Kazan and Astrakhan.
Oprichnina he policy included mass repression of the boyars (Russian aristocrats), including public executions and confiscation of their land and property
Streltsy Russian military corps established in the middle of the 16th century that formed the bulk of the Russian army for about 100 years, provided the tsar's bodyguard
Siberia A vast territory that is now central and eastern Russia.
Westernization , the adoption of the practices and culture of western Europe by societies and countries in other parts of the world, whether through compulsion or influence.
Modernization The belief that the more industrialized, urban, and modern a society became, the more social change and improvement were possible as traditional patterns and attitudes were abandoned or transformed.
St. Petersburg Capitol city of Russia built by Peter the Great. It was on the coast of the Baltic Sea and considered Russia's window
Peterhof served as the residence of Russian royalty for over two hundred years
Winter Palace a palace in Saint Petersburg that served as the official residence of the House of Romanov, previous emperors,
Pugachev Rebellion rebellion of the Cossacks and some of the Russian nobility and spread rapidly through the peasantry until it was quashed violently by the forces of Tsarist Russia.
Ivan III - The Great grand prince of Moscow (1462–1505) who subdued most of the Great Russian lands by conquest or by the voluntary allegiance of princes,
Ivan IV - The Terrible significant ruler of the Grand Duchy of Muscovy or Moscow in the sixteenth century. , he was the ruler of all of Russia
Peter the Great the czar, or monarch, of Russia from 1682 until he died in 1725. During his reign, he worked to modernize Russia and transform it into an empire that rivaled anything in Europe.
Catherine the Great ruled after assassination of her husband; gave appearance of enlightened rule; accepted Western cultural influence; maintained nobility as service aristocracy by granting them new power over peasantry.
Fall of Constantinople conquest of Constantinople by Sultan Mehmed II of the Ottoman Empire
Devshirme the Ottoman practice of forcibly recruiting soldiers and bureaucrats from among the children of their Balkan Christian subjects and forcibly converting them to Islam.
Janissaries soldiers in the Ottoman Empire who had once been Christians, prior to their enslavement and forced service in the Ottoman army.
Millets an autonomous zone made up of a particular religious group.
Jizya Tax a special tax payed by the people who practiced their own religion,
Tax Farming - “Iltizam” based on what the peasants and farmers collected. The iltizam system was important because it included the farming of land taxes and production of certain goods such as wine and salt.
Enderun a palace school and boarding school mostly for the Janissaries of the Ottoman Empire, which primarily recruited students via devşirme.
Cannonry WHen they use cannon to make thing die
Hagia Sophia the Church of Holy Wisdom, was built by the Byzantine Emperor Justinian I on the site of an destroyed basilica of the same name.
Grand Vizier the title of the effective head of government of many sovereign states in the Islamic world.
Battle of Chaldiran military engagement in which the Ottomans won a decisive victory over the Ṣafavids of Iran and went on to gain control of eastern Anatolia.
Battle of Vienna marked the beginning of the end of Ottoman domination in eastern Europe
Topkapi Palace A large palace in Istanbul, Turkey that was one of the major residences of the Ottoman sultans for almost 400 years
Suleymaniye Mosque Great mosque built in Constantinople during the 16th-century reign of the Ottoman ruler Suleyman the Magnificent
Code of the Rayas reformed the law governing levies and taxes to be paid by the rayas
Ottoman Miniatures an art form in the Ottoman Empire, which can be linked to the Persian miniature tradition, as well as strong Chinese artistic influences.
Osman founder of the Ottoman empire (1289-1923) him and his followers sought to be ghazi, and they waged many holy wars.
Mehmet II - The Conqueror one of the famous sultans of Ottoman Empire with his intelligence. Significance: Mehmed II ruled the Ottoman for a brief time, from 1444 to 1446, after his father.
Suleiman I He significantly expanded the empire in the Balkans and eastern Mediterranean. Janissary. Christian and other POWs were converted to Islam and made into infantry;
Twelver Shi’a Islam A belief that there were 12 infallible imam (religious leaders) after Muhammad and the 12th went into hiding and would return to take power and spread the true religion.
Qizilbash any member of the seven Turkmen tribes who supported the Safavid dynasty (1501–1736) in Iran.
Battle of Chaldiran military engagement in which the Ottomans won a decisive victory over the Ṣafavids of Iran and went on to gain control of eastern Anatolia
Naqsh-e Jahan Square built between 1598 and 1629 by the decision of Shah Abbas. In 1598 Shah decided to move the capital of Persian Empire from Qazvin to Isfahan as a more secure and convenient place.
Tamerlane leader of the Turkish nomads who filled the people of Europe and Asia with fear of having to relive the horror experienced during the Mongol expansion.
Shah Ismail I founder of the Safavid dynasty of Iran, ruling as its King of Kings (Shahanshah)
Shah Abbas I shah of Persia from 1588 to 1629, who strengthened the Safavid dynasty by expelling Ottoman and Uzbek troops from Persian soil and by creating a standing army.
Battle of Panipat three military engagements, important in the history of northern India, fought at Panipat, a level plain suitable for cavalry movements, about 50 miles (80 km) north of Delhi
Din-I-Ilahi “Divine Faith” a spiritual belief of a syncretic religion.
Syncretism the name given to the blending of elements from more than one religion into a distinct system of worship.
Sikhism Religious tradition of northern India founded by Guru Nanak Ca. 1500; combines elements of Hinduism and Islam and proclaims the brotherhood of all humans and the equality of men and women.
Golden Temple the principal place of worship for the Sikh people, allowing equal entry to all casts, creeds, and races.
Punjab, India a historical region on northwestern India and northern Pakistan.
Taj Mahal An immense mausoleum of white marble, built in Agra between 1631 and 1648 by order of the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his favourite wife,
Red Fort he fortified structure built by the Mughal emperor in Delhi that served as the home of the imperial family of India under Shah Jahan.
Wazir Khan Mosque its intricate faience tile work known as kashi-kari, as well as its interior surfaces that are almost entirely embellished with elaborate Mughal-era frescoes.
Shah Jahan Mosque erected many splendid monuments, the most famous of which is the Taj Mahal at Agra
Sharia Law a set of laws, principles, and guidelines determined by Islamic legal scholars who set forth jurisprudence based on their interpretation of texts such as the Quran or hadith.
Zamindars a local official in Mongul India who received a plot of farmland for temporary use in return for collecting taxes for the central government.
Mughal-Maratha Wars a series of wars fought by the Maratha Empire, starting in 1680 with the young Peshwa Shivaji's raid on Bhadra fort in present-day Ahmednagar district
Babur Founder of Mughal dynasty in India; descended from Turkic warriors; first led invasion of India in 1526; died in 1530.
Akbar the Great Mughal emperor of India (1556-1605) who conquered most of northern India and exercised religious tolerance.
Guru Nanak founded Sikhism around the turn of the sixteenth century.
Jahangir he was the "Grasper of the World." He married the Persian princess Nur Jahan, who really controlled the state affairs because he was a weak ruler.
Jahan was the Mughal Emperor who constructed the Peacock Throne, and built the Taj Mahal in memory of his favorite wife, Mumtaz Mahal.
Aurangzeb Mughal emperor in India and great-grandson of Akbar 'the Great', under whom the empire reached
Gao historically Kawkaw, town, eastern Mali, western Africa
Timbuktu Great city of West Africa, noted in the fourteenth-sixteenth centuries as a center of Islamic scholarship.
Jenne an ancient West African city built along the Niger River.
Sunni Ali the first king of the Songhai Empire, located in west Africa and the 15th ruler of the Sonni dynasty.
Edo Castle a large castle built by the Tokugawa family in 17th-century Japan
Sokaku , a strictly isolationist foreign policy,
Salaried Samurai he began paying them to protect the land instead of them controlling their own fiefs and having their own income that way.
Tokugawa Ieyasu a Japanese military leader who reunified Japan at the beginning of the 17th century after a long period of civil war, known as the Warring States or Sengoku period.
Divine Right It maintains that the king's authority comes from God and, as such, the king is accountable only to God for his actions.
Palace of Versailles palace constructed by Louis XIV outside of Paris to glorify his rule and subdue the nobility.
Puritans non-separatists who wished to adopt reforms to purify the Church of England.
Parliament Document prepared by Parliament and signed by King Charles I of England in 1628
Glorious Revolution the overthrow of the Catholic King James II, who was replaced by his Protestant daughter Mary and her Dutch husband, William of Orange.
Cardinal Richelieu french clergyman, nobleman, and statesman, serving as King Louis XIII's Chief Minister
King Louis XIV - France as the King of France from 1643 through 1715. He was the third ruler in the House of Bourbon and was son and successor to King Louis XIII.
Peter the Great - Russia the czar, or monarch, of Russia from 1682 until he died in 1725.
Catherine the Great - Russia German-born Russian tsarina in the 18th century; ruled after assassination of her husband
Charles I - England ruled Scotland, England, and Ireland from 1625-1649. Charles inherited from his father the belief that kings ruled by divine right.
Oliver Cromwell - England a Puritan and a military leader of the Parliamentarian forces during the English Civil War
Charles II - England the king of Scotland (1649-1685) before the Restoration in 1660 also made him king of England and Ireland
William & Mary - England the coregency over the Kingdoms of England, Scotland and Ireland, of spouses King William III & II and Queen Mary II.
Humanism system or mode of thought or action in which human interests, values, and dignity predominate
Patron wealthy person
Commission to oversee the developed nation's fulfillment of their international responsibility towards their mandates
Cosimo de’Medici Italian banker and politician who established the Medici family as effective rulers of Florence during much of the Italian Renaissance.
Lorenzo de’Medici a statesman and patron of the arts in Florence, Italy, during the 15th century.
Leonardo da Vinci a painter, a scientist, an inventor, and an engineer
Michelangelo Buonarotti Painter. Architect
Erasmus one of the most influential thinkers of the Renaissance in Northern Europe
Cervantes Spanish writer best remembered for 'Don Quixote' which satirizes chivalry and influenced the development of the novel form
Shakespeare English poet and dramatist considered one of the greatest English writers
Aligheri Father of the Renaissance. He believed the first two centuries of the Roman Empire to represent the peak in the development of human civilization.
Machiavelli author of The Prince (16th century); emphasized realistic discussions of how to seize and maintain power; one of most influential authors of Italian Renaissance.
Protestant a member of a Christian church founded on the principles of the Reformation.
Wittenberg Cathedral he declared that the Bible alone was the source of God not priests or popes.
Heresy An idea, belief or opinion that is opposite to or that contradicts a religion and it's beliefs.
Sacraments A religious ceremony or act of the Christian Church that is regarded as an outward and visible sign of inward and spiritual divine grace, in particular.
Indulgence The forgiveness of the punishment due for past sins, granted by the Catholic Church authorities as a reward for a pious act.
Usury the illegal action or practice of lending money at unreasonably high rates of interest.
95 Theses list of ninety-five debating points about the abuses of the Church, posted by Martin Luther on the door of a church in Wittenberg in 1517;
Predestination the idea that the ultimate fate (heaven or hell) of each person has already been pre-determined by God, regardless of any earthly events or influences.
Anglican In England, King Henry VIII severed relations with the Roman Church and established himself as the supreme head of the Anglican Church, an English pope.
Counter-Reformation An internal reform of the Catholic Church in the sixteenth century;
Council of Trent the formal Roman Catholic reply to the doctrinal challenges of the Protestant Reformation.
Jesuits Catholic religious society
Spanish Inquisition Institution organized in 1478 by Fernando and Isabel of Spain to hunt out heretical or contrary opinions
Spanish Armada a fleet of ships created in 1588 on commission from King Philip II of Spain.
John Wycliffe English Catholic priest and Oxford University professor of seminary, as well as a philosopher, theologian, church reformer, and Bible translator
Jan Hus A theologian, preacher and Rector of Prague University
Martin Luther German priest and theologian (1498-1546) who inaugurated the Protestant Reformation in Europe.
John Calvin A French lawyer who converted to Protestant Christianity in the 1530s
King Henry VIII The monarch of England who reigned from 1509-1547
Queen Elizabeth I 'Virgin Queen' never married, but instead pledged her body to England itself. In 1588, when Spain threatened to invade, she made one of the most famous speeches in royal history to inspire her troops.
Johan Gutenberg an inventor who created the first European printing press
St Ignatius Loyola Founder of the Society of Jesus (Jesuits), the new religious order formed during the Catholic Counter-Reformation.
Created by: KamLC
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