Busy. Please wait.
Log in with Clever

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
Sign up using Clever

Username is available taken
show password

Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
Your email address is only used to allow you to reset your password. See our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.

Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.
Didn't know it?
click below
Knew it?
click below
Don't know
Remaining cards (0)
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how


Toxicology Testing in Animals

Embryotoxicity When a substance given to a pregnant animal during any portion of gestation results in significant pregnancy loss, either by preventing implantation or by post-implantation death
Fetotoxicity When a substance given to a pregnant animal during any portion of gestation leads to offspring showing signs of delayed development compared to controls
Maternal toxicity When a substance given to a pregnant animal during any portion of gestation leads to deleterious effects on behavior, excretion, appearance, body weight, organ weights and/or organ function
Intra-species variability Within a single spcies, the teratogenic effects and frequencies may vary based on maternal and fetal genetic suspectibility, placental and hormonal factors and other maternal-fetal factors
NOAEL No Observable adverse effects levels, highest dose
LOAEL Lowest Observable adverse effects level (Equivalent to threshold dose)
Advantages to interpreting animal studies Easily controlled, usually provide large litters with short gestation period, provide models, occasional models for humans
Disadvantages to interpreting animal studies Different metabolism and physiology than humans, markest interspecies variation, dose equivalency is not always clearly calculated, animals are usually exposed to long term high doses, no one species has been found to be most predictive
Created by: KChatham
Popular Genetics sets




Use these flashcards to help memorize information. Look at the large card and try to recall what is on the other side. Then click the card to flip it. If you knew the answer, click the green Know box. Otherwise, click the red Don't know box.

When you've placed seven or more cards in the Don't know box, click "retry" to try those cards again.

If you've accidentally put the card in the wrong box, just click on the card to take it out of the box.

You can also use your keyboard to move the cards as follows:

If you are logged in to your account, this website will remember which cards you know and don't know so that they are in the same box the next time you log in.

When you need a break, try one of the other activities listed below the flashcards like Matching, Snowman, or Hungry Bug. Although it may feel like you're playing a game, your brain is still making more connections with the information to help you out.

To see how well you know the information, try the Quiz or Test activity.

Pass complete!
"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
restart all cards