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Micro/Media Prep


BACTERIA One-cell micro orgnism that lacks a nucleus and reproduces by cell division
BACILLUS a rod shaped bacteria
COCCUS A spherical shaped bacteria
SPIRILLA a spiral shaped bacteria
PROKARYOTE A micro-organism without a nuclear membrane (bacteria, viruses)
GRAM'S STAIN A common staining technique used to differentiate bacteria
ACID FAST BACTERIA Bacteria that do not stain differentially with Gram's stain but do retain color when treated with special acid solutions. (EG TB)
AGAR An extract of seaweed that is used to solidify microbiology culture media
SLANT When agar media solidifies in tubes on a slant. Used for fungal investigations
STAB When agar media is allowed to solidify in tubes in an upright position. Used for motility investigations.
COLONY A mass of bacteria all having a common parent cell
CONFLUENT GROWTH Area of dense growth on solid media where colonies run together
FASTIDIOUS Anm extremely delicate and difficult to culture micro-organism. Requires special media and conditions for growth
STREAKING The technique of skimming an inoculating wire loop over the surface of solid media usually in order to isolate colonies
AEROTOLERANT The ability of an anaerobic organism to grow in air, usually poorly.
ANAEROBE A micro-organism that will grow only in the complete or nearly complete absence of oxygen
FACULTATIVE ANAEROBE A micro-organism that grow under either aerobic or anerobic conditions
ANTIBIOTIC A substance that inhibits or kills other microorganisms. A broad spectrum antibiotic is effective against a wide range of micro organisms. Does not damage host eg. Penicillin
ANTIMICROBIAL Any chemical substance that is capable of killing or suppressing the growth of microorganisms. May be too toxic for human use eg: bleach
FUNGI A form of microscopic plant life that lacks chlorophyll. May be in a yeast or mold form.
MOLD One of the three categories of fungus. Defined by long tubular structures called hyphae or mycelia
YEAST One of the three categories of fungus characterized by round or oval, unicellular organisms that reproduce by budding.
DIMORPHIC FUNGI fungi that grow in either yeast or mold form, depending on the environment
DERMATOYPHYTES Fungi causing diseases of the skin, hair and nails but do not involve other tissues
PARASITES Organisms that obtain nutritionfrom another living creature
METAZOA A subkingdom of parasites including worms
PROTOZOA One celled parasites that cause diseases such as malaria
CYST The infective stage of a parasite
OVA Eggs
NORMAL FLORA Micro organisms that usually reside in certain areas of the body (mouth, gut)
NOSOCOMIAL Infections that are acquired while in a health care setting (hospital)
PATHOGENIC An agent with the ability to cause harm of disease to another arganism
CONTAGIOUS Capable of b eing transmitted from one person to another.
CAPSULE Gelatinous material that surrounds the bacterial cell wall. Demonstrated by an India Ink preparation
SPORE The reproductive element of fungi, or bacteria, that can withstand extremes in environmental conditions
VIRUS Intracellular parasite that cannot reproduce outside a living host and contains either RNA or DNA genetic material
OBLIGATE AEROBE A microorganism that must have oxygen and cannot grow in an anaerobic environment
OBLIGATE ANAEROBE A microorganism that lives and reproduces in the complete or nearly complete absence of oxygen
FACULTATIVE ANAEROBE A microorganism that lives and reproduces under either aerobic or anaerobic conditions
OBLIGATE MICRO-AEROPHILE A microorganism that lives only under reduced oxygen levels and cannot grow aerobically or anaerobically.
AEROTOLERANT A microorganism that can live in aerobic conditions but prefers anaerobic conditions
Bacterial Structure: Capsule Protective covering and or glue Stores food Aids in waste disposal Sometimes sticky which ncreases pathogenicity Requires special stianing to be observed
Bacteria structure Cell Wall: Gives bacteria shape Aids in waste disosal Sometimes sticky which increasss pathogenicity Requires special staining to be observed
Bacteria structure Cell (plasma)membrane: Semipermeable membrane so it controls passage of nutrients and waste via active and passive transport Produces enzymes for digestion of larger molecules so they can cross membrane
Ribosomes Site of protein production
Granular inclusions packages of enzymes, waste, nutrients etc.
Pili Movement of bacteria Some specialized ones are for DNA transfer (conjugation)
Cytoplasm Protein based fluid in which nutrients and other substances are dissolved
Chromosome or plasmid DNA material
Chromosome or plasmid DNA material
Mesosome Respiratory organelle (like a mitochondria in an animal cell)
endospores Encapsulation of chromosomes in response to adverse environmental conditions
Flagella Bacterial movememt
Infection Multiplication of a micro organisms to the detriment of the host.
Sepsis the state of infection usually the blood
Asepsis The PREVENTION of contamination of sterile material or living tissue.
Contamination The process of polluting items with infectious material Asepsis
Antisepsis The PROCESS of elimination of microorganisms by chemical or physical methods usually living tissue
Antiseptic A CHEMICAL that destroys, or inhibits pathogens and is sufficiently safe to be applied on the skin (topically).
Bactericide state only An agent the inhibits bacterial grown in the vegetative state
Disinfection the process of elimination of micro organisms u
Germicide An agent that destroys all types of micro organisms in the vegetative state (also called biocide/sterilant)
Spore vegetative state A structure that has a higher resistance to germicides than the vegetative state.
Vegetative Cell An actively growing bacteria or fungus
Vegetative Cell An actively growing bacteria or fungus
Sanitization A process of complete destruction of all types of micro organisms both vegetative and spore
Dry Heat Methods open flame, incineratiion, hot air oven, lyophilization, desiccation
Most Heat Methods Temeratures below 100 celcius, temperatures at 100 Celcius, Temperatures above 100 celcius, The autoclave,
Filtration used in labs to remove bacteria and large microoganisms
Irradiation Sunlight (Ultra violet radiation) powerful destructive effect on microorganisms
Beta, gamma, and x-rays are lethal to all forms of life including microorganisms.
Ultrasonics Sound waves can be used for sanitization
Chemical methods of sterilization and Disinfection` Phenolic, Halogens, Aldehydes, Alcohol, Surface Active agents, Peroxides, Heavy metals, Quaternary ammonium compounds, Ethylene oxide
Ideal Disinfectant Phenolics: Lysol - 5% concentration of phenolics, Halogens: iodine, chlorine, bromine`
Media liquid or gel designed to support the growth of microorganisms or cells
Broth a liquid media typically in screw top tubes used for dilution techniques, rapid identification
Agar is used extensively in the preparation of solid media, seawee extract, liquid when heated, solid when cold
Blood agar plates Blood agar plates: Contains mammalian blood (usually sheep or horse), typically at a concentration of 5–10%. BAP are an enriche
Quality Assurance refers to a program for the systematic monitoring and evaluation
Nutrients: is a chemical that an organism needs to live and grow
Heat labile protein is one that can be changed or destroyed at high temperatures.
Inspissation is the process of thickening by dehydration. More specifically, it is the process used when heating high-protein containing media; for example to enable recovery of bacteria for testing.
Sterility testing this can only be accomplished by validation of the sterilization process or of the aseptic processing procedures. The validation of the sterility test also known as Bacteriostasis and Fungistasis Test (B&F)
Quality testing prepared media requires QC testing before routine culture at the lab and CLSI has identified theses media.
Basal Medium
Enrichment Media Permit one bacterial pathogen to grow by using specific nutrients for the growth of that pathogen. An example of enrichment media is buffered charcoal yeast extract agar
Differential medium contains factors that give colonies of particular organisms distinctive and easily recognizable characteristics.
Selective medium are prepared by adding dyes, antibiotics, or other chemical compounds that inhibit certain bacteria.
Enriched medium Permit one bacterial pathogen to grow by using specific nutrients for the growth of that pathogen. An example of enrichment media is buffered charcoal yeast extract agar
Hygroscopic substances include sugar, honey, glycerol, ethanol, methanol, sulfuric acid, methamphetamine, many salts, and a huge variety of other substance.
Toxicity is the degree to which a substance is able to damage an exposed organism
Carmelization is a complex, poorly understood process that produces hundreds of chemical products, and includes the following types of reaction
Created by: nugentbarbara