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NETW202 Ch 4

OSI Transport Layer

Flow Control the management of data flow between devices in a network. It is used to avoid too much data arriving before a device can handle it, causing data overflow.
Control Data data that directs a process. a flag in a data-link frame is an example of control data.
Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) An organization that assigns the numbers important to the proper operation of the TCP/IP protocol and the Internet, including assigning globally unique IP addresses.
Well-known Ports Ports 0 to 1023
Registered Ports Ports 1024 to 49151
Dynamic or Private Ports Ports 49152 to 65535
URG Urgent pointer field significant. A 1-bit flag in the TCP header used to indicate that the receiving host should notify the destination process to do urgent processing.
ACK Acknowledgement field significant. A 1-bit flag in the TCP header that indicates the acknowledgement field is valid.
PSH Push function. A 1-bit flag in the TCP header that is used to request to the higher layers for immidiate delivery of the packet.
RST Reset the connection. A 1-bit flag in the TCP header that is used to request that a connection be re-established.
SYN Synchronize sequence numbers. A 1-bit flag in the TCP header used to indicate the initial value of the sequence number. The SYN flag is only set in the first two segments of the 3-way TCP connection establishment sequence.
FIN No more data from sender. A 1-bit field in the TCP header that is used by a device that wants to terminate its session with the other device. This is done by inserting the FIN flag in the flag field found in the TCP segment.
Acknowledgement A notification sent from one network device to another to confirm that some event has occured, such as receipt of a message.
Windows Size As filed in the TCP header that is set in a sent segment, signigies the maximum amount of the unacknowledged data the host is willing to receive before the other sending host must wait for an acknowledgement. Used for flow control.
What port number is used by HTTP? Port 80 TCP
What port number is used by SMTP? Port 25 TCP
What are two characteristics of TCP? Reliability and it resends anything not received. (Also a connection oriented protocol)
At the transport layer, what controls is used to keep a transmitting host from overflowing the buffers of a receiving host? TCP uses flow Control to avoid buffer overflows.
End systems use port numbers to select the proper application. What is the lowest port number that can be dynamically assigned by the host system? 1, 128, 256, or 1024? 1024; Ports 1024 through 59151 are the registered ports and are used by the host for dynamic port allocation.
During data transfer, what is the receiving host responsible for? Give two answers Acknowledgment & Reassembly
What are the transport layer's responsibilities? Keeping track of individual conversations between applications on source/destination hosts. OR Segmenting data and adding a header to identify and manage each segment
Why does TCP use a sequence number in the header? Sequence numbers are used because segments could arrive at their destination in a different order that when they were sent. The numbers allow the receiving host to reassemble them in the proper order.
What determines how much data a sending host running TCP/IP can transmit before it must receive an acknowledgment? It depends on the Window Size.
What is the purpose of TCP?UDP port numbers? To track the different conversations crossing the network at the same time.
What does segmentation provide to communications? Segmentation of the data, in accordance with the transport layer protocols, provides the means to both send and receive data when running multiple applications concurrently on a computer.
In networking, what is reliability? It means ensuring that each segment that the source sends arrives at the destination.
List three network applications that use TCP. Web browsing, E-mail, and file transfer.
List three network applications that use UDP. DNS, Video Streaming, and Voice over IP (VoIP)
What is contained in the header of each segment or data-gram? The source and destination port number.
What is the purpose of sequence numbers? A sequence number allows the transport layer function on the destination host to reassemble segments in the order in which they were transmitted.
Created by: AZ4ME