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CCNA Study Guide Ch1

Chapter 1

QuestionAnswer
are used to connect networks together and route packets of data from one network to another Routers
the set of all devices on a network segment that hear all the broadcasts sent on that segment Broadcast Domain
creates an internetwork and provides connections to WAN services. Router
The router uses something called a ____interface for WAN connections, specifically, a V.35 physical interface on a Cisco router serial
two advantages of using routers in your network -They don’t forward broadcasts by default. -They can filter the network based on layer 3 (Network layer) information (e.g., IP address).
Four router functions -Packet switching -Packet filtering -Internetwork communication -Path selection
This device forwards or filters frames Switch
This device uses logical addressing and provide what is called packet switching Router
What is it called when routers connect two or more networks together and use logical addressing (IP or IPv6)? Internetwork
routers use a ____ ______ (map of the internetwork) to make path selections and to forward packets to remote networks routing table
create separate collision domains but a single broadcast domain Switches
when 1 device sends a packet on a network segment,forcing all other device on that same segment to pay attention to it. At the same time, a different device tries to transmit, leading to a collision, after which both devices must retransmit, one at a ti Collision Domain
provide a separate broadcast domain for each interface. Routers
You would use a ______ in a network to reduce collisions within broadcast domains and to increase the number of collision domains in your network. bridge
create separate collision domains but a single broadcast domain Switches
provide a separate broadcast domain for each interface Routers
bridges/switches are used to segment networks, they will or will not isolate broadcast or multicast packets? will not
even though you have a switched network, you still need a _____ to provide your inter-VLAN communication, or internetworking router
connections between the switches are considered a _____ _______ collision domain
 It divides the network communication process into smaller and simpler components, thus aiding component development, design, and troubleshooting.  It allows multiple-vendor development through standardization of network components. OSI Layered Model
 It encourages industry standardization by defining what functions occur at each layer of the model.  It allows various types of network hardware and software to communicate. OSI Layered Model
 It prevents changes in one layer from affecting other layers, so it does not hamper development OSI Layered Model
it’s a set of guidelines that application developers can use to create and implement applications that run on a network. It also provides a framework for creating and implementing networking standards, devices, and internetworking schemes. OSI
The bottom four layers of the OSI define how____ is transmitted end to end data
In OSI, this layer • Keeps different applications data separate Session
In the OSI, this layer • Presents data • Handles processing such as encryption Presentation
Which OSI layer • Provides reliable or unreliable delivery • Performs error correction before retransmit Transport
Which OSI layer Provides logical addressing, • which routers use for path determination Network
Which OSI layer Combines packets into bytes and bytes into frames • Provides access to media using MAC address • Performs error detection not correction Data Link
Which OSI layer • Moves bits between devices • Specifies voltage, wire speed, • and pin-out of cables Physical
The _____ layer is also responsible for identifying and establishing the availability of the intended communication partner and determining whether sufficient resources for the intended communication exist Application
The _______ layer is acting as an interface between the actual application programs Application
Which OSI layer is this? It presents data to the Application layer and is responsible for data translation and code formatting presentation layer
The ______ layer is responsible for setting up, managing, and then tearing down sessions between Presentation layer entities. Session
This layer provides dialog control between devices, or nodes. It coordinates communication between systems and serves to organize their communication by offering three different modes: simplex, half duplex, and full duplex Session
The _____ layer segments and reassembles data into a data stream Transport
Services located in the _______ layer segment and reassemble data from upper-layer applications and unite it into the same data stream Transport
What type of networking means that acknowledgments, sequencing, and flow control will be used? Reliable or Unreliable reliable. This can be used at the transport layer
____ ______ prevents a sending host on one side of the connection from overflowing the buffers in the receiving host—an event that can result in lost data Flow control.Data integrity is ensured at the Transport layer by maintaining flow control and by allowing users to request reliable data transport between systems
Reliable data transport employs a ______-oriented communications session between systems connection.
Connection Oriented Communications ensure that The segments delivered are ______ back to the sender upon their reception acknowledged.Any segments not acknowledged are retransmitted.
The purpose of flow control is to provide a means for the _______ to govern the amount of data sent by the ______. receiver sender
In reliable transport operation, a device that wants to transmit sets up a connection-oriented communication with a remote device by creating a session. The transmitting device 1st establishes a connection-oriented session w/its peer system,which is_ _ _ three way handshake
“connection agreement” segment is a request for synchronization. is the what step of the 3 way handshake? 1
The second and third segments acknowledge the request and establish connection parameters—the rules—between hosts. is the what step of the 3 way handshake? 2
These segments request that the receiver’s sequencing is synchronized here as well so that a bidirectional connection is formed. At what step of the 3 way handshake does this happen? 2
The final segment is also an acknowledgment. It notifies the destination host that the connection agreement has been accepted and that the actual connection has been established. Data transfer can now begin.( what step of 3 way handshake is this?) 3
A service is considered _______-________ if it has the following characteristics:  A virtual circuit is set up (e.g., a three-way handshake).  It uses sequencing.  It uses acknowledgments.  It uses flow control connection-oriented
The types of ____ ______ are buffering, windowing, and congestion avoidance. flow control
The quantity of data segments (measured in bytes) that the transmitting machine is allowed to send without receiving an acknowledgment for them is called a ______ window.Windows are used to control the amount of outstanding, unacknowledged data segments.
If a receiving host fails to receive all the segments that it should acknowledge, the host can improve the communication session by decreasing the _______ size. window
First, when a packet is received on a router interface, the _____ _____ ______ is checked destination IP address
What type of packets are used to transport user data through the internetwork.? data packets
What type of packets are used to update neighboring routers about the networks connected to and to help build and maintain routing tables on each router all routers within the internetwork? Route update packets
Protocols that send route update packets are called _____ protocols routing.examples of some common ones are RIP, RIPv2, EIGRP, and OSPF
Protocols used to support data traffic are called _____protocols routed .examples of routed protocols are IP and IPv6.
each VLAN is a separate ______ domain broadcast
What OSI layer does this describe? File,Print, Message Database,and application services. Application
What OSI layer does this describe? Data encryption,compression,and translation services. Presentation
What OSI layer does this describe? Dialog Control Session
What OSI layer does this describe? End-to-end connection Transport
What OSI layer does this describe? Routing Network
What OSI layer does this describe? Framing Datalink
What OSI layer does this describe? Physical Topology Physical
A service is considered ______ -______ if it has the following characteristics:  A virtual circuit is set up (e.g., a three-way handshake).  It uses sequencing.  It uses acknowledgments.  It uses flow control. connection-oriented
The ____ layer manages device addressing, tracks the location of devices on the network, and determines the best way to move data Network.the Network layer must transport traffic between devices that aren’t locally attached. Routers (layer 3 devices) are specified at the Network layer and provide the routing services within an internetwork.
Two types of packets are used at the Network layer?_____ and_______ _______ data and route updates
Within a router table the ____ is the The distance to the remote network. Metric
Within a routing table, the _____ is the exit interface a packet will take when destined for a specific network. Interface.Each interface in a router represents a separate network.it must be assigned unique network identification numbers, and each host on the network connected to that router must use the same network number.
What is the number of routers a packet passes through en route to a remote network called? hop count
Routers, by default, will or will not forward any broadcast or multicast packets. will not
Routers use the _____ address in a Network layer header to determine the next hop router to forward the packet to. logical
Routers can use ____ ______, created by an administrator, to control security on the types of packets that are allowed to enter or exit an interface. access lists
_____ can provide layer 2 bridging functions if needed and can simultaneously route through the same interface. Routers
Layer 3 devices (routers in this case) provide connections between virtual LANs (VLANs).
Within a routing table, the _____ is the exit interface a packet will take when destined for a specific network. Interface.Each interface in a router represents a separate network.it must be assigned unique network identification numbers, and each host on the network connected to that router must use the same network number.
What is the number of routers a packet passes through en route to a remote network called? hop count
Routers, by default, will or will not forward any broadcast or multicast packets. will not
Routers use the _____ address in a Network layer header to determine the next hop router to forward the packet to. logical
Routers can use ____ ______, created by an administrator, to control security on the types of packets that are allowed to enter or exit an interface. access lists
_____ can provide layer 2 bridging functions if needed and can simultaneously route through the same interface. Routers
Layer 3 devices (routers in this case) provide ______ between virtual LANs (VLANs). connections
_____ can provide quality of service (QoS) for specific types of network traffic Routers
The _____ _____ layer provides the physical transmission of the data and handles error notification, network topology, and flow control. Data Link
the Data Link layer will ensure that messages are delivered to the proper device on a LAN using ______ addresses and will translate messages from the Network layer into ___ for the Physical layer to transmit. hardware bits
The Data Link layer formats the message into pieces, each called a data _____ and adds a customized header containing the hardware destination and source address frame
It’s the ___ ____ layer that’s responsible for the actual unique identification of each device that resides on a local network Data Link
the ____ itself is never altered along the route; it’s only encapsulated with the type of control information required for it to be properly passed on to the different media types packet
The IEEE Ethernet Data Link layer has two sublayers and one of them called ____ ____ ____ Defines how packets are placed on the media.Line discipline, error notification, ordered delivery of frames, optional flow control can be used at this sublayer. Media Access Control (MAC) 802.3.Physical addressing is defined here, as well as logical topologies
_____ topology is the signal path through a physical topology Logical
The IEEE Ethernet Data Link layer has two sublayers and one of them called ____ _____ ____ is responsible for identifying Network layer protocols and then encapsulating them. Logical Link Control (LLC) 802.2.An LLC header tells the Data Link layer what to do with a packet once a frame is received.
The switches and bridges work at the Data Link layer and filter the network using _____ addresses hardware (MAC) addresses.
Layer 2 switching is considered hardware-based bridging because it uses specialized hardware called an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC).
_____ is the time measured from when a frame enters a port to the time it exits a port Latency
Bridges and switches read each frame as it passes through the network. The layer 2 device then puts the source hardware address in a ____ table and keeps track of which port the frame was received on. filter. This helps the machine determine the location of the specific sending device
layer 3 machines (such as routers) need to locate specific _____ networks
layer 2 machines (switches and bridges) need to eventually locate specific _____ devices
When a switch interface receives a frame with a destination hardware address that isn’t found in the device’s filter table, what will it do? It will forward the frame to all connected segments.If the unknown device that was sent the “mystery frame” replies to this forwarding action, the switch updates its filter table regarding that device’s location
What layer does this describe? It sends bits and receives bits.specifies the electrical, mechanical, procedural, and functional requirements for activating, maintaining, and deactivating a physical link between end systems. Physical
This layer is where you identify the interface between the data terminal equipment (DTE) and the data communication equipment (DCE). Physical
A ____ is really a multiple-port repeater. A repeater receives a digital signal and reamplifies or regenerates that signal and then forwards the digital signal out all active ports without looking at any data Hub
______ is a contention media access method that allows all hosts on a network to share the same bandwidth of a link Ethernet
Ethernet networking uses _____, a protocol that helps devices share the bandwidth evenly without having two devices transmit at the same time on the network medium. Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD)
Explain what happens with CSMA/CD on an Ethernet LAN....  A jam signal informs all devices that a collision occurred.  The collision invokes a random backoff algorithm.  Each device on the Ethernet segment stops transmitting for a short time until the timers expire.  All hosts have= priority to transmit
the effects of having a CSMA/CD network sustaining heavy collisions:  Delay  Low throughput  Congestion
Full-duplex Ethernet can be used in three situations:  With a connection from a switch to a host  With a connection from a switch to a switch  With a connection from a host to a host using a crossover cable Full-duplex Ethernet requires a point-to-point connection when only two nodes are present.
There are no collisions in ____-duplex mode. full
A dedicated switch port is required for each ____-duplex node. full
The host _____ card and the switch port must be capable of operating in full-duplex mode. network
Ethernet at the Data Link layer is responsible 2 things.... *for Ethernet addressing, commonly referred to as hardware addressing or MAC addressing and for framing packets received from the Network layer and preparing them for transmission on the local network through the Ethernet contention media access method
Ethernet addressing uses uses the Media Access Control (MAC) address burned into each and every Ethernet network interface card (NIC). The MAC, or hardware, address is a __-bit (_-byte) address written in a hexadecimal format. 48,6
______ are used at the Data Link layer to encapsulate packets handed down from the Network layer for transmission on a type of media access. Frames
function of Ethernet stations is to pass data frames between each other using a group of bits known as a MAC frame format. This provides error _____ from a cyclic redundancy check (CRC) detection
Encapsulating a frame within a different type of frame is called _______ tunneling
______ address is all 1s (or Fs in hex) and is sent to all devices broadcast
______ address is sent only to a similar subset of nodes on a network Multicast
What type of cable is used to connect these ?  Host to switch or hub  Router to switch or hub straight through
What type of cable is used to connect these ?  Switch to switch  Hub to hub  Host to host  Hub to switch  Router direct to host Cross over
To communicate&exchange info,each layer uses ____ ____ ____ These hold the control information attached to the data at each layer of the model. usually attached to the header in front of the data field but can also be in the trailer, or end, of it. Protocol Data Units (PDUs).
The Cisco hierarchical model...(The definition of the layers is logical, not physical.) The layer that provides the backbone is the ____ Core.layer is responsible for transporting large amounts of traffic both reliably and quickly.The core is likely to see large volumes of traffic, so speed and latency are driving concerns here.
The Cisco hierarchical model... (The definition of the layers is logical, not physical.)The layer that provides the routing is the what layer? Distribution
The Cisco hierarchical model... (The definition of the layers is logical, not physical.)The layer that provides the switching is the what layer? Access
The primary functions of the _______(cisco hierarchical model) layer are to provide routing, filtering, and WAN access and to determine how packets can access the core, if needed Distribution
These things should be done at which layer of the hierarchical model? Routing  Implementing tools (such as access lists), packet filtering, and queuing  Implementing security and network policies, including address translation and firewalls Distribution
These things should be done at which layer of the hierarchical model?  Redistributing between routing protocols, including static routing  Routing between VLANs and other workgroup support functions  Defining broadcast and multicast domains Distribution
In the cisco hierarchical model, the ____ layer controls user and workgroup access to internetwork resources. Access
These function should occur at what layer of the Cisco Hierarchical Model? -Creation of separate collision domains (segmentation) -Workgroup connectivity into the distribution layer Continued (from distribution layer) use of access control and polici Access.Technologies such as DDR and Ethernet switching are frequently seen in the access layer. Static routing (instead of dynamic routing protocols) is seen here as well.
Created by: mlletech