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PCOM #32

PCOM Herbs 6 - Final

CATEGORYFORMULASOURCEHERBSACTIONSPATTERNINDICATIONSTONGUE & PULSEWMC
Formulas that Dry Dampness and Expel Phlegm Jin Shui Liu Jun Jian / Six-Gentleman of Metal & Water Decoction Zhang Jing-Yue (1624): Jing Yue Quan Shu — Collected Treatises of [Zhang] Jing-Yue Ban Xia - 6g Chen Pi - .4.5g Fu Ling - 6g Zhi Gan Cao - 3g Dang Gui - 6g Sheng Di Huang - .9-15g + Sheng Jiang - 3-7pc Enriches and nourishes the LU and KD, dispels dampness and transforms phlegm LU and KD yin deficiency w rising phlegm copious, white sputum that is difficult to expectorate, wheezing, nausea; the sputum may have a salty taste and the throat may be parched; T: peeled recently this formulas has been widely used for treating chronic bronchitis in the elderly
Formulas that Dry Dampness and Expel Phlegm Liu An Jian / Six-Serenity Decoction Zhang Jing-Yue (1624): Jing Yue Quan Shu — Collected Treatises of [Zhang] Jing-Yue Chen Pi - 4.5g Ban Xia - 6-9g Fu Ling - 6g Gan Cao - 3g Xing Ren - 3g Bai Jie Zi - 1.5-2.1g + Sheng Jiang - 7pc Dries dampness, transforms phlegm, directs rebellious qi downward, and calms wheezing sub-acute stage of wind-cold disorders coughing and wheezing w sticky sputum that is difficult to expectorate
Formulas that Dry Dampness and Expel Phlegm Jia Wei Er Chen Tang / Augmented Two-Cured Decoction Wu Qian (1742): Yi Zong Jin Jian — Golden Mirror of the Medical Tradition Ban Xia - 2.4g Chen Pi - 2.4g Fu Ling - 2.4g Gan Cao - 1.5g Huang Qin - 2.4g Huang Lian - 1.5g Bo He - 1.5g + Sheng Jiang - 3pc Clears fire, transforms phlegm, harmonizes the ST, directs turbidity downward Phlegm-fire incessant cicada-like tinnitus, hearing loss w occasional deafness, lightheadedness, heaviness in the head, a stifling sensation and fullness in the chest and abdomen, coughing w copious sputum, a bitter taste in the mouth, urinary and bowel difficulty T: red w yellow greasy coating; P: wiry, slippery pulse
Formulas that Dry Dampness and Expel Phlegm Qing Shi Hua Tan Tang / Clear Dampness & Transform Phlegm Decoction Gong Ting-Xian (early 17th century): Shou Shi Bao Yuan — Achieving Longevity by Guarding the Source Ban Xia - 4g Fu Ling - 4g Cang Zhu - 4g Tian Nan Xing - 3g Huang Qin - 3g Chen Pi - 2.5-3g Qiang Huo - 1.5g Bai Jie Zi - 1.5g Bai Zhi - 1.5g Gan Cao - 1-1.5g Sheng Jiang - 1-3g Gan Jiang - 1g Clears damp-phlegm from the channels damp-phelgm in the channels joint dysfunction, generalized joint and body aches, tightness in the chest and back, numbness int he limbs, and ice-cold sensation int eh mid-to-upper back P: submerged, slippery
Formulas that Clear Heat and Transform Phlegm **Wen Dan Tang / Warm the Gallbladder Decoction Wu Qian (1742): Yi Zong Jin Jian — Golden Mirror of the Medical Tradition (C) Zhu Ru - 6g (D) Zhi Shi - 6g (A) Ban Xia - 6g (A) Chen Pi - 9g (A) Fu Ling - 4.5g (A) Gan Cao - 3g (E) Sheng Jiang - 3-6g + Da Zao Regulates the qi, transforms phlegm, clears the GB, and harmonizes the ST disharmony between the GB and ST w Phlegm-heat dizziness, vertigo, nausea or vomiting, insomnia, palpitations, anxiety, indeterminate gnawing hunger, or seizures accompanied by coopious sputum, focal distention of the chest, a bitter taste in the mouth, slight thirst T: greasy yellow tongue coat; P: rapid and either slippery or wiry chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, chronic hepatitis, neurosis, early stages of schizophrenia, Méniere's disease, chronic bronchitis
Formulas that Clear Heat and Transform Phlegm Huang Lian Wen Dan Tang / Coptis Decoction to Warm the Gallbladder Wang Meng-Ying (1852): Wen Re Jing Wei — Warp and Woof of Warm-febrile Diseases Wen Dan Tang + Huang Liang Regulates the qi, transforms phlegm, strongly clears GB heat, and harmonizes the ST GB/ST Disharmony w severe phlegm-heat more restlessness and irritability than a Wen Dan Tang presentation, and a more intensely bitter taste in the mouth T: greasy yellow tongue coat; P: rapid and either slippery or wiry
Formulas that Clear Heat and Transform Phlegm Shi Wei Wen Dan Tang / Ten-Ingredient Decoction to Warm the Gallbladder Wang Ken-Tang (1602): Zheng Zhi Zhun Sheng — Standards of Patterns and Treatments Ban Xia - 6g Zhi Shi - 6g Chen Pi - 6g Fu Ling - 4.5g Suan Zao Ren - 3g Yuan Zhi - 3g Wu Wei Zi - 3g Shu Di Huang - 3g Ren Shen - 3g Zhi Gan Cao - 1.5g Sheng Jiang - 5 slices Da Zao - 1pc Transforms phlegm, calms the HT disturbance of the spirit due to HT and GB deficiency anxiety and being easily frightened, combined w edema of the limbs, loss of taste and appetite, palpitations, irritability, a stifling sensation in the chest, and difficulty in sitting without fidgeting
Formulas that Clear Heat and Transform Phlegm Shi Yi Wei Wen Dan Tang / Eleven-Ingredient Decoction to Warm the Gallbladder Ma You-Du (1980): Yi Fang Xin Jie — New Explanation of Medical Formulas Ban Xia - 9g Chen Pi - 9g Fu Ling - 15g Gan Cao - 6g Zhi Shi - 6g Zhu Ru - 12g Huang Lian - 6g Yuan Zhi - 6g Shi Chang Pu - 9g Ye Jiao Teng - 30g Zhen Zhu Mu - 30g Transforms phlegm, clears heat, harmonizes the ST and calms the spirit; the focus is on clearing heat and calming the spirit phlegm-heat that upsets the harmony of the ST insomnia, vertigo, palpitations w anxiety, a stifling sensation in the chest, a bitter taste in the mouth T: greasy tongue coating; P: slippery, rapid
Formulas that Clear Heat and Transform Phlegm **Qing Qi Hua Tan Wan / Clear the Qi and Transform Phlegm Pill Wu Kun (1584): Yi Fang Kao — Investigations of Medical Formulas (C) Dan Nan Xing - 45g (D) Ban Xia - 45g (D) Gua Lou Ren - 30g (A) Huang Qin - 30g (A) Chen Pi - 30g (A) Xing Ren - 30g (A) Zhi Shi - 30g (A) Fu Ling - 30g + Ginger Juice Clears heat, transforms phlegm, directs rebellious qi downward, and stops coughing internal clumping of phlegm-heat in the LU coughing of yellow, viscous sputum that is difficult to expectorate, focal distention and a feeling of fullness in the chest and diaphragm, nausea; in severe cases there may also be difficulty in breathing T: red w greasy yellow coat; P: slippery, rapid acute and chronic bronchitis and pneumonia
Formulas that Clear Heat and Transform Phlegm Xiao Xian Xiong Tang / Minor Sinking into the Chest Decoction Zhang Zhong-Jing (150-219): Shang Han Lun — Discussion of Cold-induced Disorders (C) Gua Lou - 24-30g (D) Huang Lian - 3g (A) Jiang Ban Xia - 9-12g Clears heat, transforms phlegm, expands the chest and dissipates clumps clumping in the chest (xiong jie) which is caused by the sinking of pathogenic heat into the chest and epigastrium (upper and middle burners) where it mixes w phlegm and forms clumps focal distention (with or without nodules) in the chest and epigastrium that are painful when pressed, coughing up yellow and viscous sputum, constipation, a bitter taste in the mouth T: yellow greasy tongue coating; P: slippery and either floating or rapid bronchitis, pleurisy, cholecystitis, icteric hepatitis, acute or chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, angina pectoris, and intercostal neuralgia
Formulas that Moisten Dryness and Transform Phlegm **Bei Mu Gua Lou San / Fritillaria & Trichosanthes Fruit Powder Cheng Guo-Peng (1732): Yi Xue Xin Wu — Medical Revelations (C) (Chuan) Bei Mu - 4.5g (D) Gua Lou - 3g (A) Tian Hua Fen - 2.4g (A) Fu Ling - 2.4g (A) Ju Hong - 2.4g (A) Jie Geng - 2.4g Moistens the Lungs, clears heat, regulates the qi, and transforms phlegm dryness in the LU which injures the fluids and causes phlegm. This type of phlegm is referred to as dry-phlegm cough w deep-seated sputum that is difficult to expectorate, wheezing, a dry and sore throat T: red and dry w little coating; P: rapid, thin, strong
Formulas that Transform Phlegm and Dissipate Nodules Xiao Luo Wan / Reduce Scrofula Pill Cheng Guo-Peng (1732): Yi Xue Xin Wu — Medical Revelations Xuan Shen - 120g Mu Li - 120g Bei Mu - 120g + honey Clears heat and transforms phlegm to soften and dissipate nodules phlegm nodules (Tan He); in the form of either scrofula (Luo Li), nodules on the side of the neck; or goiter (Ying), nodules in front of neck nodules on the neck that are firm and rubbery in consistency accompanied by a dry mouth and throat T: red; P: rapid, slippery or wiry cervical lymphadenopathy, lymphadenitis, simple goiter, thyroiditis, and hyperthyroidism
Formulas that Transform Phlegm and Dissipate Nodules Hai Zao Yu Hu Tang / Sargassum Decoction for the Jade Flask Chen Shi-Gong (1617): Wai Ke Zheng Zong — True Lineage of External Medicine (C) Hai Zao - 3g (C) Kun Bu - 3g (C) Hai Dai - 1.5g (D) Zhe Bei Mu - 3g (A) Ban Xia - 3g (A) Du Huo - 3g (A) Chuan Xiong - 3g (A) Dang Gui - 3g (A) Qing Pi - 3g (A) Chen Pi - 3g (A) Lian Qiao - 3g (E) Gan Cao - 3g Transforms phlegm, softens hard masses, reduces and dissipates goiter rock-like goiter (Shi Ying) or qi goiter (Qi Ying). It is caused by stagnation of dampness, phlegm, qi, and blood in the area between the skin and flesh on the neck. This produces a very hard mass that grows progressively larger masses in the center of the neck which are rock-like in hardness, immobile, cause no change in the color of the skin, and do not ulcerate T: thin greasy coat; P: wiry and slippery simple goiter, hyperthyroidism, benign tumors of the thyroid; to be effective, the formula must be taken during the early stages for a period of 3-6 months
Formulas that Warm and Transform Cold-Phlegm **Ling Gui Zhu Gan Tang / Poria, Cinnamon Twig, Atractylodes & Licorice Decoction Zhang Zhong-Jing (150-219): Shang Han Lun — Discussion of Cold-induced Disorders (C) Fu Ling - 12g (D) Gui Zhi - 9g (A) Bai Zhu - 6g (E) Zhi Gan Cao - 6g Warms and transforms phlegm and congested fluids, strengthens the SP and resolves dampness "Tan Yin", congested fluids in the chest and epigastrium w middle jiao yang deficiency fullness in the chest and hypochondria, palpitations, shortness of breath, coughing up clear and watery sputum, and dizziness or vertigo T: pale, swollen w white and slippery or greasy coating; P: slippery, either wiry or soggy Ménière's disease, neurosis, rheumatoid arthritis, chronic nephritis, chronic gastritis, and chronic bronchitis
Formulas that Warm and Transform Cold-Phlegm Ling Gan Wu Wei Jiang Xin Tang / Poria, Licorice, Schisandra, Ginger and Asarum Decoction Zhang Zhong-Jing (150-219): Jin Gui Yao Lue — Essential Prescriptions from the Golden Coffer (D) Fu Ling - 12g (E) Gan Cao - 9g (C) Gan Jiang - 9g (D) Xi Xin - 9g (A) Wu Wei Zi - 6-12g Warms the LU, transforms congested fluids cold congested fluids (thin phlegm) due to yang deficiency and ascendant yin cold congested fluids due to yang deficiency and ascendant yin chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
Formulas that Warm and Transform Cold-Phlegm San Zi Yang Qin Tang / Three Seed Decoction to Nourish One's Parents Han Mao (1522): Han Shi Yi Tong — Comprehensive Medicine According to Master Han Bai Jie Zi - 6-9g Su Zi - 6-9g Lai Fu Zi - 6-9g Directs the qi downward, relaxes the diaphragm, transforms phlegm, reduces food stagnation cold phlegm retention in the LU w qi stagnation coughing and wheezing, copious sputum, focal distention in the chest, loss of appetite, digestive difficulties T: white greasy coat; P: slippery acute and chronic bronchitis, bronchial asthma, emphysema, pediatric asthma, spasms of the diaphragm
Formulas that Transform Phlegm and Extinguish Wind Zhi Sou San / Stop Coughing Powder Cheng Guo-Peng (1732): Yi Xue Xin Wu — Medical Revelations (D) Jie Geng - 960g (A) Jing Jie - 960g (C) Zi Wan - 960g (C) Bai Bu - 960g (C) Bai Qian - 960g (E) Gan Cao - 360g (D) Chen Pi - 480g Stops coughing, transforms phlegm, disperses the exterior and disseminates the LU qi wind-cold invading the LU coughing w or without slight chills and fever, an itchy throat T: thin, white coat; P: moderate, floating URT infection, acute bronchitis, pertussis, early stages of viral and mycoplasmic pneumonia
Formulas that Transform Phlegm and Extinguish Wind **Ban Xia Bai Zhu Tian Ma Tang / Pinellia, White Atractylodis and Gastrodia Decoction Cheng Guo-Peng (1732): Yi Xue Xin Wu — Medical Revelations (C) Ban Xia - 4.5g (C) Tian Ma - 3g (D) Bai Zhu - 9g (A) Ju Hong - 3g (A) Fu Ling - 3g (E) Gan Cao - 1.5g (A) Sheng Jiang - 1 slice (A) Da Zao - 2 pc Strengthens the SP, dispels dampness, transforms phlegm and extinguishes wind wind-phlegm, also known as upward disturbance of wind-phlegm dizziness or vertigo (possibly severe), HA, stifling sensation in the chest, nausea or vomiting, copious sputum T: white greasy coating; P: wiry slippery Méniere's disease, hypertension, tubercular meningitis, benign positional vertigo
Formulas that Transform Phlegm and Extinguish Wind Ding Xing Wan / Arrest Seizures Pill Cheng Guo-Peng (1732): Yi Xue Xin Wu — Medical Revelations Tian Ma - 30g Chuan Bei Mu - 30g Jiang Ban Xia - 30g Fu Ling - 30g Fu Shen - 30g Dan Nan Xing - 15g Shi Chang Pu - 15g Quan Xie - 15g Jiang Can - 15g Hu Po - 15g Deng Xin Cao - 15g Chen Pi - 21g Yuan Zhi - 21g Dan Shen - 60g Mai Men Dong - 60g + Zhu Sha Scours out phlegm, opens the sensory orifices and extinguishes wind seizure disorder (Xian Zheng) arising from a combination of LV wind and phlegm, more common in children, it is due to emotional disorders, improper eating habits, irregular life-style or overwork recurrent vertigo, weakness, stifling sensation in the chest followed by loss or clouded consciousness, falling down, upward-rolling eyes, deviated mouth, spit up mucus w loud raspy sound; severe cases: tonic-clonic convulsions, shrieking, incontinence T: white greasy coat; P: usually wiry & slippery primary or secondary epilepsy
Formulas that Nourish the Heart and Calm the Spirit **Tian Wang Bu Xin Dan / Emperor of Heaven's Special Pill to Tonify the Heart Hong Ji (Jiu-You) (1638): She Sheng Mi Pou — Secret Investigations into Obtaining Health (C) Sheng Di (D) Ren Shen (A) Tian Men Dong (A) Mai Men Dong (A) Xuan Shen (D) Dan Shen (D) Fu Ling (D) Yuan Zhi (D) Dang Gui (A) Wu Wei Zi (D) Bai Zi Ren (A) Suan Zao Ren (E) Jie Geng + Zhu Sha, honey, long yan rou tea Enriches yin, nourishes blood, tonifies the HT & calms the spirit; focuses on treating the irritability Yin & blood deficiency of the HT and KD such that the HT & KDs fail to communicate irritability, palpitations w anxiety, fatigue, insomnia w restless sleep, inability to think or concentrate, nocturnal emissions, forgetfulness, dry stools; there may also be sores of the mouth and tongue, low-grade fever, and night sweats T: red w little coating; P: thin, rapid heart disease, menopausal syndrome, chronic urticaria, apthous ulcers, chronic conjunctivitis, neurasthenia; especially useful for patients who have taken tranquilizers or sleeping pills for so long that they no longer have any effect
Formulas that Nourish the Heart and Calm the Spirit **Suan Zao Ren Tang / Sour Jujube Decoction Zhang Zhong-Jing (150-219): Jin Gui Yao Lue — Essential Prescriptions from the Golden Coffer (C) Suan Zao Ren - 15-18g (A) Fu Ling - 6g (A) Zhi Mu - 6g (D) Chuan Xiong - 6g (E) Gan Cao - 3g Nourishes the blood, calms the sprit, clears heat and eliminates irritability LV blood deficiency w constraint and internal fire; a form of consumption due to LV blood deficiency together with heat from deficiency. When LV (wood or mother) is deficient, there is not enough blood to nourish the HT (fire or child) irritability, inability to sleep, palpitations, night sweats, dizziness and vertigo, dry throat and mouth T: dry, red; P: wiry or thin, rapid irritability that often arises in the wake of an illness or exhaustion from overwork; also for trigeminal neuralgia and migraine
Formulas that Nourish the Heart and Calm the Spirit Ding Zhi Wan / Settle the Emotions Pill Sun Si-Miao (652 CE): Qian Jin Yao Fang — Thousand Ducat Formulas (C) Ren Shen - 90g (C) Fu Ling - 90g (D) Shi Chang Pu - 60g (D) Yuan Zhi - 60g + Honey Tonifies the HT qi and calms the spirit HT qi deficiency and constraint caused by phlegm turbidity; also constitutional deficient HT qi with an acute situation of emotional shock or fright apprehensiveness, easily frightened or worried, incessant laughter and glee, together w palpitations with anxiety and forgetfulness T: pale w white coat psychological disorders including anxiety, neurosis and obsessive compulsive disorders; also for near-sightedness
Formulas that Nourish the Heart and Calm the Spirit **Huang Lian E Jiao Tang / Coptis and Ass-Hide Gelatin Decoction Zhang Zhong-Jing (150-219): Shang Han Lun — Discussion of Cold-induced Disorders (C) Huang Lian - 12g (C) Huang Qin - 6g (C) E Jiao - .9g (A) Shao Yao - 6g (D) Ji Zi Huang - 2 yolks Enriches the yin, causes fire to descend, eliminates irritability and calms the spirit Heat excess and blood deficiency in the ShaoYin; also fire from yin deficiency in the aftermath of a febrile disease; also bleeding disorders or dysenteric disorders due to heat toxin irritability w a sensation of heat in the chest, insomnia, palpitations w anxiety; there may also be sores of the tongue or mouth T: red w a dry, yellow coat; P: thin, rapid neurasthenia, recuperative stage of an infectious disease, apthous ulcers, dysentery
Formulas that Nourish the Heart and Calm the Spirit Jiao Tai Wan / Grand Communication Pill Han Mao (1522): Han Shi Yi Tong — Comprehensive Medicine According to Master Han Huang Lian - 18g Rou Gui - 3g + Honey Reestablishes harmonious communication between the HT and KD internally-generated disorders in which the KD yang is unable to provide a base for the HT yang irritability, restlessness, severe, continuous palpitations, coolness of the lower limbs, great difficulty in falling asleep
Formulas that Nourish the Heart and Calm the Spirit **Gan Mai Da Zao Tang / Licorice, Wheat & Jujube Decoction Zhang Zhong-Jing (150-219): Jin Gui Yao Lue — Essential Prescriptions from the Golden Coffer (C) Gan Cao - 9g (D) Fu Xiao Mai - 15g (D) Da Zao - 10pc Nourishes the HT, calms the spirit, and harmonizes the middle burner Qi and yin deficiency of the HT and SP; also known as "restless organ disorder" (zang zao), an emotional condition that is generally attributed to excessive worry, anxiety or pensiveness, which injures HT yin and disrupts LV and SP qi disorientation, frequent attacks of melancholy and crying spells, inability to control oneself, restless sleep (sometimes w night sweats), frequent bouts of yawning; in severe cases the behavior and speech become abnormal T: red w sparse coat; P: thin, rapid hysteria, neurosis, menopausal syndrome, autonomic dystonia, enuresis, and fever of unknown origin
Formulas that Sedate and Calm the Spirit Zhu Sha An Shen Wan / Cinnabar Pill to Calm the Spirit Li Ao (1247): Nei Wai Shang Bian Huo Lun — Clarifying Doubts about Injury from Internal and External Causes (C) Zhu Sha - 15g (D) Huang Lian - 18g (A) Dang Gui - 7.5g (A) Sheng Di Huang - 7.5g (E) Zhi Gan Cao - 16.5g Sedates the HT (clears heat from the heart), calms the spirit, drains fire and nourishes the yin vigorous HT fire injuring the blood and yin insomnia, continuous palpitations, a sensation of irritability and heat in the chest, a desire to vomit without result, dream-disturbed sleep; in some cases, the patient may also develop a rancorous disposition T: red; P: thin, rapid neurasthenia, depression, anxiety neurosis, panic attacks and mitral valve prolapse
Formulas that Sedate and Calm the Spirit Ci Zhu Wan / Magnetite & Cinnabar Pill Sun Si-Miao (652 CE): Qian Jin Yao Fang — Thousand Ducat Formulas (C) Ci Shi - 60g (D) Zhu Sha - 30g (A) Shen Qu - 120g + honey Heavily sedates and calms the spirit, weighs down the yang, and improves the vision and hearing Ascendant HT yang with a loss of the mutual balance between water and fire (aka "disharmony between the HT and the KD") palpitations, insomnia, tinnitus and diminished acuity of hearing and vision; also for seizures optic nerve atrophy, some types of neural deafness and tinnitus, visual hallucinations associated with schizophrenia, cataracts
Formulas that Sedate and Calm the Spirit **Chai Hu Jia Long Gu Mu Li Tang / Bupleurum plus Dragon Bone & Oyster Shell Decoction Zhang Zhong-Jing (150-219): Shang Han Lun — Discussion of Cold-induced Disorders (C) Chai Hu - 12g (C) Huang Qin - 4.5g (A) Ban Xia - 6-9g (A) Ren Shen - 4.5g (E) Sheng Jiang - 4.5g (C) Gui Zhi - 4.5g (A) Fu Ling - 4.5g (A) Long Gu - 4.5g (A) Mu Li - 4.5g (C) Da Huang - 6g (E) Da Zao - 6pc (A) Qian Dan - 4.5g Unblocks the three yang stages and sedates & calms the spirit this is a condition due to problems in all three of the yang stages of disease resulting from an improper use of purgatives which are used before the disease enters the Yang Ming fullness in the chest, irritability w occasional attacks of palpitations, urinary difficulty, constipation, delirious speech, inability to rotate the trunk, a sensation of extreme heaviness throughout the body T: red w slippery coat; P: wiry, rapid neurosis, schizophrenia, hysteria, epilepsy, hypertension, first or second degree A-V block, hyperthyroidism, Ménière's disease, spasm of the m. sternocleidomastoid, gastritis, menopausal syndrome, and post-concussion syndrome
Formulas that Clear Heat and Open the Orifices **An Gong Niu Huang Wan / Calm the Palace Pill with Cattle Gallstone Wu Ju-Tong (1798): Wen Bing Tiao Bian — Systematic Differentiation of Warm Diseases (C) Niu Huang - 30g (C) Xi Jiao - 30g (C) She Xiang - 7.5g (D) Huang Lian - 30g (D) Huang Qin - 30g (D) Zhi Zi - 30g (D) Xiong Huang - 30g (D) Bing Pian - 7.5g (D) Yu Jin - 30g (A) Zhu Sha - 30g (A) Zhen Zhu - 15g + Honey + Gold Leaf coating Clears heat, relieves toxicity, dislodges phlegm, opens the orifices and calms the spirit Warm-febrile disease sinking into the PC with turbid phlegm veiling the orifices. This is a serious stage in the progression of a warm-febrile disease high fever, irritability and restlessness, delirious speech, impaired consciousness, the sound of phlegm in the throat, dry mouth; also for coma due to wind-stroke or childhood convulsions, and for stiffness of the tongue and frigid extremitie T: parched, red or deep-red; P: rapid acute encephalitis, acute meningitis, acute hepatitis, pneumonia, dysentery, uremia, hepatic coma, cerebrovascular accident, and schizophrenia
Formulas that Clear Heat and Open the Orifices Zi Xue Dan / Purple Snow Special Pill Government Pharmacopia (1078-85): Tai Ping Hui Min He Ji Ju Fang — Imperial Grace Formulary (C) Shi Gao (C) Han Shui Shi (C) Hua Shi (C) Xi Jiao (C) Ling Yang Jiao (C) She Xiang (D/A) Xuan Shen (D/A) Ci Shi (D/A) Sheng Ma (E) Zhi Gan Cao (D/A) Qing Mu Xiang (D/A) Chen Xiang (D/A) Ding Xiang (D/A) Zhu Sha (D/A) Mang Xiao (D/A) Xiao Shi (E) gold Controls spasms and convulsions, opens the orifices, clears heat, relieves toxicity, and calms the spirit; focuses on clearing heat and extinguishing wind blazing heat sinking into the PC and generating internal movement of LV wind; it usually occurs in the advanced stage of a warm-febrile disease high fever, irritability and restlessness, delirious speech, impaired consciousness, muscle twitches, spasms, convulsions, thirst, parched lips, dark urine, severe constipation, and childhood convulsions T: scarlet-red w dry yellow coat; P: forceful, wiry & rapid acute encephalitis, acute meningitis, measles, scarlet fever, diphtheria, acute tonsillitis, acute herpetic gingivostomatitis, folliculitis, furuncles and seizure disorder
Formulas that Clear Heat and Open the Orifices Hui Chun Dan / Return of Spring Special Pill Qian Shu-Tian (date unknown): Jing Xiu Tang Yao Shuo — Herbal Teachings from the Respectfully Decorated Hall (C) Niu Huang (C) Tian Zhu Huang (C) Chuan Bei Mu (C) Dan Nan Xing (C) She Xiang (D) Gou Teng (D) Quan Xie (D) Tian Ma (D) Jiang Can (D) Zhu Sha (D) Da Huang (A) Chen Pi (A) Ban Xia (A) Bai Dou Kou (A) Tan Xiang (A) Mu Xiang (A) Zhi Ke (A) Chen Xiang (E) Opens the orifices, arrests spasms and convulsions, clears heat, and transforms phlegm Childhood convulsions due to phlegm-heat entering the PC and veiling the orifices of the HT fever, impaired consciousness, childhood convulsions, irritability & restlessness. The child may also have wheezing, nausea, night crying, vomiting, diarrhea, abd pain, excess secretion of mucus & saliva, sounds of mucus in the throat T: deep red; P: rapid acute encephalitis, acute meningitis, measles, scarlet fever, diphtheria, pediatric seizure disorder, seizure disorder, and sever acute gastroenteritis
Formulas that Warm and Open the Orifices Su He Xiang Wan / Liquid Styrax Pill Government Pharmacopia (1078-85): Tai Ping Hui Min He Ji Ju Fang — Imperial Grace Formulary (C) Su He Xiang (C) She Xiang (C) Bing Pian (C) An Xi Xiang (D) Mu Xiang (D) Tan Xiang (D) Chen Xiang (D) Ru Xiang (D) Ding Xiang (D) Xiang Fu (A) Bi Ba (A) Xi Jiao (A) Zhu Sha (A) Bai Zhu (A) He Zi + Honey Warms and aromatically opens the orifices, promotes the movement of qi, and transforms turbidity Cold-dampness and turbid phlegm veiling the sensory orifices. This formula is used in treating a variety of acute closed disorders due to excessive cold, including Qi Stroke, Cold Stroke, and epidemic sudden turmoil disorder Qi & Cold Stroke manifest as fullness, pain and a sensation of cold in the chest and abdomen which may signal the impending sudden loss of consciousness, and coma; Qi Stroke also has clenched jaw; and in severe cases, coma cerebrovascular accident, encephalitis, hysteria, seizure disorder, post-concussion syndrome, angina pectoris
Formulas that Scour Phlegm and Open the Orifices Di Tan Tang / Scour Out Phlegm Decoction Yan Yong-He (1253): Ji Sheng Fang — Formulas to Aid the Living (C) Ban Xia - 6.6g (C) Ju Hong - 6g (C) Fu Ling - 6g Zhi Shi - 6g Zhu Ru - 2.1g Dan Nan Xing - 6.6g Shi Chang Pu - 3g Ren Shen - 3g (C) Gan Cao - 1.5g + Sheng Jiang + Da Zao Scours out phlegm, opens the orifices and tonifies qi; focuses the phlegm-dispersing actions on the HT this is a pattern of internal obstruction due to severe phlegm which veils the HT orifices; also for various patterns of phlegm pathology such as wheezing, dizziness, insomnia or loss of motor function stiffness of the tongue and speech impairment T: moist or greasy coat (usually white); P: slippery or wiry cerebrovascular accident, seizure disorder, motor aphasia, bronchial asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, acute and chronic bronchitis, and bronchiectasis
Formulas that Scour Phlegm and Open the Orifices Gun Tan Wan / Vaporize Phlegm Pill Fang Guang-Lei (1536): Dan Xi Xin Fa Fu Yu — Additions to the Teachings of [Zhu] Dan-Xi (C) Duan Meng Shi - 30g (D) Da Huang - 240g (D) Huang Qin - 240g (A) Chen Xiang - 15g Drains fire and drives out phlegm; focuses on driving out excess phlegm via the bowels a combination of excessive heat and chronic phlegm, or phlegm-fire which accumulates over a period of time constipation, facial tics, insomnia, strange dreams, sudden deep pain in joints, nodules in the neck or a choking sensation; also mania-withdrawal & palpitations w anxiety; cough & wheeze w thick, sputum; focal distention in the chest; vertigo, tinnitus T: yellow thick greasy tongue coating; P: slippery, rapid and forceful hysteria, anxiety, neurosis, manic-depression, schizophrenia, pediatric seizure disorder, seizure disorder, Ménières disease, benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, bronchial asthma, acute bronchitis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Formulas that Reduce Food Accumulation and Transform Stagnation **Bao He Wan / Preserve Harmony Pill Zhu Dan-Xi (1481): Dan Xi Xin Fa — Teachings of [Zhu] Dan-Xi (C) Shan Zha - 180g (9-15g) (D) Shen Qu - 60g (9-12g) (D) Lai Fu Zi - 30g (6-9g) (A) Chen Pi - 30g (6-9g) (A) Ban Xia - 90g (9-12g) (A) Fu Ling - 90g (9-12g) (A) Lain Qiao - 30g (3-6g) + Mai Ya Reduces food stagnation and harmonizes the ST for the early stages of food stagnation or for relatively mild disorders. This is a typical presentation of food stagnation that occurs from eating contaminated food, or from gross overeating and drinking focal distention and fullness in the chest and epigastrium, abdominal distention w occasional pain, rotten-smelling belching, acid regurgitation, nausea and vomiting, aversion to food; there may also be diarrhea T: yellow greasy coat; P: slippery acute gastroenteritis, acute exacerbation of chronic gastritis, hepatitis, acute pancreatitis, and acute or chronic cholecystitis
Formulas that Reduce Food Accumulation and Transform Stagnation **Zhi Shi Dao Zhi Wan / Immature Bitter Orange Pill to Guide Out Stagnation Li Ao (1247): Nei Wai Shang Bian Huo Lun — Clarifying Doubts about Injury from Internal and External Causes Zhi Shi - 15g Da Huang - 30g Shen Qu - 15g Fu Ling - 9g Huang Qin - 9g Huang Lian - 9g Bai Zhu - 9g Ze Xie - 6g Reduces and guides out stagnation and accumulation, clears heat and dispels dampness accumulation of food that transforms into damp-heat and obstructs the ST and Intestines pain (that increases with pressure) and distention in the epigastrium and abdomen, dysenteric disorders or constipation (depending on the degree of obstruction), scanty dark urine T: red w greasy or slippery yellow coat; P: submerged, forceful acute or chronic gastroenteritis, diarrhea, dysentery, hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, urinary tract infection, chronic constipation, trigeminal pain
Formulas that Reduce Food Accumulation and Transform Stagnation Mu Xiang Bing Lang Wan / Aucklandia & Betel Nut Pill Zhong Cong-Zheng (1228): Ru Men Shi Qin — Confucians' Duties to Their Parents (C) Mu Xiang - 30g (C) Bing Lang - 30g (D) Da Huang - 90g (D) Qian Niu Zi - 120g (D) Qing Pi - 30g (D) Chen Pi - 30g (A) Chao Xiang Fu - 120g (A) E Zhu - 30g (A) Huang Lian - 30g (A) Huang Bai - 90g + Sheng Jiang Promotes the movement of qi, guides out stagnation, purges accumulation and drains heat Accumulation of food obstructing the middle jiao or dysenteric diarrhea; also for various patterns of damp-heat obstructing the qi dynamic of the Triple Burner focal and generalized distention, fullness and pain in the epigastrium and abdomen accompanied by constipation or red-and-white dysenteric diarrhea w tenesmus T: yellow greasy coat; P: submerged and excessive
Formulas that Reduce Food Stagnation but also Tonify Jian Pi Wan / Strengthen the Spleen Pill Wang Ken-Tang (1602): Zheng Zhi Zhun Sheng — Standards of Patterns and Treatments (C) Chao Bai Zhu (C) Fu Ling (C) Ren Shen (D) Shan Yao (D) Rou Dou Kou (A) Shan Zha (A) Chao Shen Qu (A) Chao Mai Ya (A) Mu Xiang (A) Chen Pi (A) Sha Ren (A) Jui Chao Huang Lian (E) Gan Cao Strengthens the SP, reduces food stagnation and stops diarrhea SP & ST deficiency complicated by food accumulation that has begun to transform into heat; in this pattern, the deficient aspects are more significant than those of excess reduced appetite w difficulty in digestion, bloating and focal distention of the epigastrium and abdomen, loose and watery diarrhea T: greasy, slightly yellow coat; P: deficient, frail chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, gastric prolapse, chronic dysentery, ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, autonomic dysfunction of the GI tract
Formulas that Reduce Food Stagnation but also Tonify Zhi Zhu Wan / Unripe Bitter Orange & Atractylodes Pill Li Ao (1247): Nei Wai Shang Bian Huo Lun — Clarifying Doubts about Injury from Internal and External Causes (C) Bai Zhu - 60g (12-18g) (D) Zhi Shi - 30g (6-9g) + fried rice in He Ye Tonifies the SP and reduces focal distention SP and ST deficiency with food stagnation; this combination is often added to other formulas for food stagnation loss of appetite, focal distention in the epigastrium and abdomen T: white coat; P: deficient gastric ptosis or prolapse, and chronic gastritis
Formulas that Reduce Food Stagnation but also Tonify Zhi Zhu Tang / Unripe Bitter Orange & Atractylodes Decoction Zhang Zhong-Jing (150-219): Jin Gui Yao Lue — Essential Prescriptions from the Golden Coffer (C) Zhi Shi - 12g (D) Bai Zhu - 6g Promotes the movement of qi, dissipates clumping, strengthens the SP and reduces food hard, broad focal distention in the epigastrium due to congested fluids epigastric distention, reduced appetite, belching T: white greasy coat; P: submerged, wiry
Formulas that Reduce Food Stagnation but also Tonify Zhi Shi Xiao Pi Wan / Unripe Bitter Orange Pill to Reduce Focal Distention Li Ao (1336): Lan shi mi cang — Secrets from the Orchid Chamber (C) Zhi Shi - 15g (D) Zhi Hou Po - 12g (D) Huang Lian - 15g (D) Ban Xia - 9g (D) Ren Shen - 9g (A) Bai Zhu - 6g (A) Fu Ling - 6g (A) Mai Ya - 6g (A) Gan Jiang - 3g (E) Zhi Gan Cao - 6g Reduces focal distention, eliminates fullness, strengthens the SP, and harmonizes the ST SP deficiency and qi stagnation w mutual clumping of heat and cold; this is a complex, mixed pattern of deficiency and excess in which excess predominates focal distention and fullness in the upper epigastrium, lack of thirst or appetite, fatigue and weakness. Also focal distention in the chest and abdomen, a wan complexion, poor digestion, irregular bowels movements (sometimes loose, sometimes hard) P: wiry (right guan position) chronic gastritis, chronic bronchitis, chronic dysentery, and functional stomach disorders
Herbs that Expel Parasites **Wu Mei Wan / Mume Pill Zhang Zhong-Jing (150-219): Shang Han Lun — Discussion of Cold-induced Disorders (C) Wu Mei - 480g (D) Chuan Jiao - 120g (D) Xi Xin - 180g (D) Huang Lian - 480g (D) Huang Bai - 180g (A) Gan Jiang - 300g (A) Fu Zi - 180g (A) Gui Zhi - 180g (A) Ren Shen - 180g (A) Dang Gui - 120g + honey Warms the organs (Intestines) and calms roundworms collapse from roundworms (hui jue) caused by heat in the chest and epigastrium (ST) and cold in the organs (Intestines) intermittent attacks of abdominal pain, a stifling sensation, irritability, and warmth in the chest and epigastrium accompanied by vomiting after eating, and cold hands and feet. There may also be vomiting of roundworms. ascariasis, roundworms in the bile duct, chronic gastroenteritis, post-gastrectomy syndrome, colitis, or chronic dysentery
Herbs that Expel Parasites Hua Chong Wan / Dissolve Parasites Pill Government Pharmacopia (1078-85): Tai Ping Hui Min He Ji Ju Fang — Imperial Grace Formulary (C) He Shi - 1500g (D) Bing Lang - 1500g (D) Ku Lian Gen Pi - 1500g (D) Qian Dan - 1500g (A) Ming Fan - 375g + wheat dough + rice soup Kills intestinal parasites intestinal parasites, which usually arise from improper or unsanitary eating habits, most commonly in people with cold, deficient constitutions intestinal parasites w intermittent attacks of abdominal pain that moves around an dis worse in the periumbilical region. When severe, the pain leads to vomiting of clear fluids or parasites roundworm (ascariasis), tapeworm, pinworm, or fasciolopsis infestations
Herbs that Expel Parasites Fei Er Wan / Fat Baby Pill Government Pharmacopia (1078-85): Tai Ping Hui Min He Ji Ju Fang — Imperial Grace Formulary (A) Chao Shen Qu - 300g (D) Huang Lian - 300g (D) Rou Dou Kou - 150g (C) Shi Jun Zi - 150g (A) Chao Mai Ya - 150g (C) Bing Lang - 120g (A) Mu Xiang - 60g + Pig Gall Kills parasites, reduces accumulation, strengthens the SP, and clears heat; focuses on the root of the disorder—the parasitic infestation childhood nutritional impairment that develops from an accumulation of parasites; the use of this formula has been expanded to include any childhood nutritional impairment w accumulation, even without parasitic infestation parasitic infestations w intermittent attacks of abdominal pain, indigestion, emaciation, loose stools, feverishness, foul-smelling breath, a sallow complexion and a large, distended abdomen ascariasis, malnutrition, and chronic indigestion in children
Formulas that Extinguish Internal Wind Zhen Gan Xi Feng Tang / Sedate the Liver and Extinguish Wind Decoction Zhang Xi-Chun (1918-34): Yi Xue Zhong Zhong Can Xi Lu — Records of Heart-felt Experiences in Medicine w Reference to the West (C) Huai Niu Xi - 30g (D) Zhe Shi - 30g (D) Long Gu - 15 (D) Mu Li - 15g (A) Gui Ban - 15g (A) Xuan Shen - 15g (A) Tian Men Dong - 15g (A) Bai Shao - 15g (A) Yin Chen Hao - 6g (A) Chaun Lian Zi - 6g (A) Mai Ya - 6g (E) Gan Cao - 4.5g Sedates the LV, extinguishes wind, nourishes the yin, and anchors the yang Wind-type stroke w underlying KD & LV yin deficiency leading to LV yang rising. This is more for those at risk from stroke than the sequelae of stroke, also commonly used to treat hypertension dizziness, vertigo, distention in the eyes, tinnitus, feverish head, HA, irritability, flushed face; also belching, progressive motor dysfunction or facial asymmetry, loss of consciousness w inability to recover, confusion alt w lucidity P: wiry, long, forceful essential hypertension, renal hypertension, hypertensive encephalopathy, focal disorders of the higher nervous functions such as aphasia and apraxia, epilepsy, cerebral arteriosclerosis, arteriosclerotic heart disease, and post partum fever
Formulas that Extinguish Internal Wind **Ling Jiao Gou Teng Tang / Antelope Horn & Uncaria Decoction Yu Gen-Chu (Qing): Chong Ding Tong Su Shang Han Lun — Revised Popular Guide to the Discussion of Cold-induced Disorders (C) Ling Yang Jiao - 4.5g (C) Gou Teng - 9g (D) Sang Ye - 6g (D) Ju Hua - 9g (A) Bai Shao - 9g (A) Sheng Di - 15g (A) Chuan Bei Mu - 12g (A) Zhu Ru - 15g (A) Fu Shen - 9g (E) Gan Cao - 2.4g Cools the LV, extinguishes wind, increases the fluids, and relaxes the sinews. heat excess in the LV channel stirring up internal movement of wind persistent high fever, irritability, restlessness, dizziness, vertigo, twitching and spasms of the extremities; in severe cases there may also be impaired or actual loss of consciousness T: deep-red, dry or burnt w prickles; P: wiry, rapid essential hypertension, hypertensive encephalopathy, cerebrovascular accident, encephalitis, meningitis, eclampsia, puerperal convulsions
Formulas that Extinguish Internal Wind **Tian Ma Gou Teng Yin / Gastrodia & Uncaria Decoction Author Unknown (?): Za Bing Zheng Zhi Xin Yi — New Significance of Patterns and Treatment in Miscellaneous Diseases (C) Tian Ma - 9g (C) Gou Teng - 12-15g (C) Shi Jui Ming - 18-24g (D) Zhi Zi - 9g (D) Huang Qin - 9g (A) Yi Mu Cao - 9-12g (A) Chuan Niu Xi - 12g (A) Du Zhong - 9-12g (A) Sang Ji Sheng - 9-24g (A) Ye Jiao Teng - 9-30g (A) Fu Shen - 9-15g Calms the LV, extinguishes wind, clears heat, invigorates the blood, and tonifies the LV and KD Hyperactive LV yang leading to internal stirring of LV wind; especially useful for hypertension HA, dizziness, vertigo, tinnitus, blurred vision, a sensation of heat rushing to the head, insomnia w dream-disturbed sleep; in severe cases there may also be numbness, twitching and spasms in the extremities, or hemiplegia T: red; P: wiry, rapid cerebrovascular disease, transitory ischemic attacks, essential hypertension, renal hypertension, hypertensive encephalopathy, focal disorders of the higher nervous functions such as aphasia and apraxia, epilepsy, neurosis
Formulas that Extinguish Internal Wind San Jia Fu Mai Tang / Three Shell Decoction to Restore the Pulse Wu Ju-Tong (1798): Wen Bing Tiao Bian — Systematic Differentiation of Warm Diseases Zhi Gan Cao - 18g Sheng Di - 18g Bai Shao - 15g Mai Men Dong - 15g Huo Ma Ren - 9g E Jiao - 9g Mu Li - 15g Bie Jia - 24g Gui Ban - 30g Nourishes the yin, restores the pulse, clears heat, anchors the yang, and extinguishes wind. This formula focuses on anchoring errant yang and tonifying true yin. late-stage warm pathogen disorder where the yin has been injured, there are two possible patterns. Also used for various internally-generated disorders w yin deficiency and ascendant yang two presentations 1) spasms, loss of consciousness, quivering fingers, feverish palms and soles 2) dizziness and vertigo, tinnitus, dry throat, palpitations, bleeding symptoms T: deep-red, dry P: thin, rapid and forceless OR T: dry, glossy & peeled P: thin, wiry encephalitis, meningitis, hypocalcemia, carpopedal spasms, spasms of the facial muscles
Formulas that Extinguish Internal Wind E Jiao Ji Zi Huang Tang / Ass-Hide Gelatin & Egg Yolk Decoction Yu Gen-Chu (Qing): Chong Ding Tong Su Shang Han Lun — Revised Popular Guide to the Discussion of Cold-induced Disorders (C) E Jiao - 6g (C) Ji Zi Huang - 2 yolks (D) Sheng Di - 12g (D) Bai Shao - 9g (D) Zhi Gan Cao - 1.8g (A) Gou Teng - 6g (A) Shi Jue Ming - 15g (A) Mu Li - 12g (A) Fu Shen - 12g (E) Luo Shi Teng - 9g Enriches the yin, nourishes the blood, softens the LV, and extinguishes wind. blood deficiency and insufficiency of yin fluids that leads to stirring of internal wind; this is deficiency wind occurring in the late stages of a warm pathogen disorder rigid extremities, muscles spasms and twitches in the extremities, dry mouth, parched lips T: deep-red w a slight coating P: thin, rapid encephalitis, meningitis
Formulas that Extinguish Internal Wind Da Ding Feng Zhu / Major Arrest Wind Pearl Wu Ju-Tong (1798): Wen Bing Tiao Bian — Systematic Differentiation of Warm Diseases (C) Ji Zi Huang - 2 yolks (C) E Jiao - 9g (D) Bai Shao - 18g (D) Zhi Gan Cao - 12g (D) Wu Wei Zi - 6g (A) Sheng Di - 18g (A) Mai Men Dong - 18g (A) Huo Ma Ren - 6g (A) Gui Ban - 12g (A) Bie Jia - 12g (A) Mu Li - 12g Nourishes the yin and extinguishes wind internal movement of wind due to yin deficiency. Also for patterns of internal wind w severe deficiency or palpitations from the LV failing to nourish the HT, as seen in restless leg syndrome or hyperthyroidism weariness, muscle spasms w alternating flexion and extension of the extremities; often a patient will appear as if he is about to go into shock T: deep-red w scanty or peeled coat P: deficient or frail advanced-stage epidemic encephalitis and meningitis
Formulas that Extinguish Internal Wind Di Huang Yin Zi / Rehmannia Decoction Liu Yuan-Su (1172): Huang Di Su Wen Xuan Ming Lun Fang — Formulas from the Discussion Illuminating the Yellow Emperor's Basic Questions (C) Shu Di (C) Shan Zhu Yu (C) Rou Cong Rong (C) Ba Ji Tian (D) Fu Zi (D) Rou Gui (D) Shi Hu (D) Mai Men Dong (A) Shi Chang Pu (A) Yuan Zhi (A) Fu Ling (A) Wu Wei Zi (E) Sheng Jiang - 5pc (E) Da Zao - 1pc (E) Bo He - 5-7 leaves Enriches the KD yin, tonifies the KD yang, opens the orifices, and transforms phlegm; this formula treats both upper and lower burners, addressing both manifestation and root but focusing more on the root (lower jiao vacuity). mute paraplegia (yin fei) due to deficiency and waning of the lower base (KD yin & yang) together with an upward-flaring of fire from deficiency stiffness of the tongue w an inability to speak, disability or paralysis of the lower extremities, a dry mouth w an absence of thirst T: greasy, yellow tongue coating P: submerged, slow, thin, and frail acute transverse myelitis, hypertensive encephalopathy, cerebral arteriosclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, sequelae of cerebrovascular accident, secondary hypertension associated w chronic glomerulonephritis and pyelonephritis
Formulas that Dry Dampness and Expel Phlegm **Er Chen Tang / Two-Cured Decoction Government Pharmacopia (1078-85): Tai Ping Hui Min He Ji Ju Fang — Imperial Grace Formulary (C) Ban Xia - 15g (C) Ju Hong - 15g (D) Fu Ling - 9g (A) Zhi Gan Cao - 4.5g + Sheng Jiang - 7pc + Wu Mei - 1pc Dries dampness, transforms phlegm, regulates the qi, and harmonizes the middle burner Damp-phlegm from the SP failing to properly transport the fluids, which thereupon accumulate and form phlegm coughing w copious, white sputum that is easily expectorated, focal distention and a stifling sensation in the chest and diaphragm, palpitations, nausea or vomiting, dizziness; T: swollen w thick white greasy coat; P: slippery upper respiratory tract infections, chronic bronchitis, goiter, chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, and Meniere's disease
Created by: kellyjelly