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CS161

Introduction to Computer Science C++

QuestionAnswer
Elements of a Computer Input (get data) Output (display result) storage performance of arithmetic and logic operations
CPU Central Processing Unit Components: CU control unit ALU arithmetic logic unit IR instruction register
CU Control Unit 1 fetch and decode data MAIN FUNCTION 2 control flow of info in and out of main memory 3 control operation of the CPU's internal units
ALU Arithmetic Logic Unit carries out all arithmetic and and logical operations
IR Instruction Register holds the instruction currently being executed
Main Memory all programs go into main memory before they can be executed all data must go into main memory before a program can be manipulated *when computer is turned off, everything in the main memory is lost for good
Memory Cells compose the Main Memory in an ordered sequence. Each cell can be either programming instruction or data. ADDRESS: unique location for each cell
Secondary Storage permanent storage ie hard disks, flash drives, CD-ROMS, etc.
Software programs written to perform a certain task 2 Types incl System Programs and Application Programs
System Programs control the computer ie- operating system
Operating System monitors the overall activity of the computer and provides services ie- memory mgmt, input/output ativities and storage mgmt
Application Programs perform a certain task ie- word processors, spreadsheets, games
Analog Signals continuous waveforms used to rep such things as sound
Digital Signals rep info with a sequence of zeros and ones. 0- low voltage 1- high voltage
Machine Language language of a computer composed of zeros and ones
Bit binary digit 0 or 1
Binary Code AKA Binary Number sequence of 0s and 1s
Byte sequence of eight bits
ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange Data set consist of 128 characters numbered 0-127
Assembler program that translates a program written in assembly language int an equiv program in machine language
High Level Languages programming language closer to natural languages ie- C++, COBOL, Java,
Compiler translates instructions written in high-level language into machine code identifies logic errors but does not correct them
Output Statement ex cout << "My first C++ Program." << endl; cause the computer to evaluate the expression after the pair of symbols and display the results on screen
endl causes the insertion pt to move to the beginning of the next line
string? stores characters on the keyboard
Source Code or Source Program text editor
# statements that begin w/ # are preprocessor directives
Object Program machine language version of the high-level language
SDK software development kit ie- Visual Studio, Codewarrior, etc.
Linker combines object program w other programs in the library
Loader program that loads an executable program into main memory
6 Steps to Execute a C++ Program C++ Program 1 Editor 2 Preprocessor 3 Compiler (syntax error back to step 1) Library into linker 4 Linker 5 Loader 6 Execution *as a programmer, you need to be concerned with step 1
Algorithm step by step problem solving in which a solution is arrived at in a finite amt of time
Programming Problem-solving Process 1 analyze the prob., outline the probem and it's solution requirements, & design an algorithm to solve prob 2 implement the algorithm in C++, and verify that it works 3 maintain the program by using and modifying it if the prob domain changes
Structured Design dividing a prob into smaller subproblems AKA Modular Programming Structured Programming is the process.
Object Oriented Design (OOD) 1 identify objs. which form the basis of the solution, and determine how they interact with each other 2 identify the data for each obj, the relevant DATA & possible OPERATIONS to be performed w the data
Kilobyte 2^10= 1024 bytes
Megabyte 2^20 = 1,048,576 bytes
Gigabyte 2^30 = 1,073,741,824 bytes
Terabyte 2^40 = 1,099,511,627,776 bytes
Class In C++, the mechanism that allows you to combine data and operations on the data into a single unitt is called class
mnemonic In assembly language, an instruction is an easy to remember mnemonic
Computer Categories Mainframe Midsize Micro
ANSI/ISO 1998, approved C++ language standards
Created by: falconer