Busy. Please wait.
or

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
or

Username is available taken
show password

why


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
We do not share your email address with others. It is only used to allow you to reset your password. For details read our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.


Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.

Remove ads
Don't know
Know
remaining cards
Save
0:01
To flip the current card, click it or press the Spacebar key.  To move the current card to one of the three colored boxes, click on the box.  You may also press the UP ARROW key to move the card to the "Know" box, the DOWN ARROW key to move the card to the "Don't know" box, or the RIGHT ARROW key to move the card to the Remaining box.  You may also click on the card displayed in any of the three boxes to bring that card back to the center.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
Retries:
restart all cards




share
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

ICND1

ICND1, CCNA, 640-822(Chapter 2-4)

QuestionAnswer
networking model, or networking architecture the documents referenced in a networking model define all the details of how to create a complete working network
Which of the following protocols are examples of TCP/IP transport layer protocols? a. Ethernet b. HTTP c. IP d. UDP e. SMTP f. TCP TCP and UDP
Which of the following protocols are examples of TCP/IP network access layer protocols? There are two answers a. Ethernet b. HTTP c. IP d. UDP e. SMTP f. TCP g. PPP Ethernet and PPP
The process of HTTP asking TCP to send some data and make sure that it is received correctly is an example of what?a. Same-layer interaction b. Adjacent-layer interaction c. The OSI model d. All the other answers are correct. Adjacent-layer interaction occurs on one computer, with two adjacent layers in the model. The higher layer requests services from the next lower layer, and the lower layer provides the services to the next higher layer.
The process of TCP on one computer marking a segment as segment 1, and the receiving computer then acknowledging the receipt of segment 1, is an example of what? Same-layer interaction OR Adjacent-layer interaction Same-layer interaction occurs on multiple pcs.
The process of a web server adding a TCP header to a web page, followed by adding an IP header, and then a data link header and trailer is an example of what? Data Encapsulation is defined as the process of adding a header in front of data supplied by a higher layer (and possibly adding a trailer as well).
Which of the following terms is used specifically to identify the entity that is created when encapsulating data inside data link layer headers and trailers? a. Data b. Chunk c. Segment d. Frame e. Packet f. None of these Frame
Which OSI layer defines the functions of logical network-wide addressing and routing? a. Layer 1 b. Layer 2 c. Layer 3 d. Layer 4 e. Layer 5 f. Layer 6 g. Layer 7 3
Which OSI layer defines the standards for cabling and connectors? a. Layer 1 b. Layer 2 c. Layer 3 d. Layer 4 e. Layer 5 f. Layer 6 g. Layer 7 1
Which OSI layer defines the standards for data formats and encryption? a. Layer 1 b. Layer 2 c. Layer 3 d. Layer 4 e. Layer 5 f. Layer 6 g. Layer 7 6
Which of the following terms are not valid terms for the names of the seven OSI layers? a. Application b. Data link c. Transmission d. Presentation e. Internet f. Session transmission and internet
TCP/IP defines a large collection of _______ that allow computers to communicate protocols
Give some examples of protocols associated with the TCP/IP Architecture Application Layer HTTP, POP3, SMTP
Give some examples of protocols associated with the TCP/IP Architecture Transport Layer TCP and UDP
What is a a protocol associated with the TCP/IP Architecture Internet Layer? IP
Name two protocols associated with the TCP/IP Architecture Network access Layer. Ethernet and Frame Relay
TCP/IP classifies the various protocols into different categories or layers
The application layer does not define the application itself, but rather it defines the services that applications need—such as the capability to transfer a file in the case of HTTP
What is the most popular TCP/IP application today? web browser
when a particular layer on one computer wants to talk w/the same layer on another pc, the 2 pcs use headers to hold the information that they want to communicate. The headers are part of what is transmitted between the 2 computers. This process is call same-layer interaction
The application layer doesn't define application itself. It defines services that apps need,like the ability to transfer a file in the case of HTTP. the application layer provides an interface between software running on a computer and the network itself.
The TCP/IP transport layer consists of which two main protocol Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the User Datagram Protocol (UDP).
TCP provides an error-recovery feature to the application protocols by using acknowledgements
adjacent-layer interaction, which defines the concepts of how adjacent layers in a networking model, on the _____ computer, work together same. Note:The higher-layer protocol (HTTP) needs to do something it cannot do (error recovery). So, the higher layer asks for the next lower-layer protocol (TCP) to perform the service, and the next lower layer performs the service.
Same-layer interaction on different computers The two computers use a protocol to communicate with the same layer on another computer. The protocol defined by each layer uses a header that is transmitted between the computers, to communicate what each computer wants to do.
Adjacent-layer interaction on the same computer On a single computer, one layer provides a service to a higher layer. The software or hardware that implements the higher layer requests that the next lower layer perform the needed function
IP defines the process of routing so that devices called ______ can choose where to send packets of data so that they are delivered to the correct destination routers
IP defines _____, called IP addresses, which allow each TCP/IP-speaking device (called IP hosts) to have an address with which to communicate. IP also defines routing, the process of how a router should forward, or route, packets of data. logical addresses
The network access layer defines _______ some physical network. The term network access refers to the fact that this layer defines how to physically connect a host computer to the physical media over which data can be transmitted the protocols and hardware required to deliver data across
Ethernet is one example protocol at the TCP/IP _____ layer. Ethernet defines the required cabling, addressing, and protocols used to create an Ethernet LAN. network access
the Internet layer, as implemented by IP, uses the services of the ____ layer to deliver the packets over each physical network, respectively. network access
The network access layer includes a large number of protocols. For instance, the network access layer includes all the variations of Ethernet protocols and other LAN standards. This layer also includes the popular WAN standards, such as the Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) and Frame Relay
the goal of the IP routing process is to deliver the IP ______ Packet—the IP header and data—to the destination host
IP uses the network access layer protocols to deliver an IP packet to the next ______ or host router with each router repeating the process until the packet arrives at the destination
Each network access protocol uses ____to encode the information needed to successfully deliver the data across the physical network, headers
the TCP/IP ______ layer includes the protocols, cabling standards, headers, and trailers that define how to send data across a wide variety of types of physical networks. network access
As you can see from the explanations of how HTTP, TCP, IP, and the network access layer protocols Ethernet and PPP do their jobs, each layer adds its own ____ (and sometimes trailer) to the data supplied by the higher layer. header
the process of putting headers and trailers around some data Encapsulation
the web server encapsulated the home page inside an ____ header HTTP
The TCP layer encapsulated the HTTP headers and data inside a ____header TCP
IP encapsulated the TCP headers and the data inside an ___ header IP
The process by which a TCP/IP host sends data can be viewed as a five-step process. The first four steps relate to the encapsulation performed by the four TCP/IP layers, and the last step is the actual _____ transmission of the data by the host physical
The process by which a TCP/IP host sends data can be viewed as a 5-step process. The first 4 steps relate to the encapsulation performed by the 4 TCP/IP layers, and the last step is the actual physical transmission of the data by the host. What's the 1s Create and encapsulate the application data with any required application layer headers. For example, the HTTP OK message can be returned in an HTTP header, followed by part of the contents of a web page
The process by which a TCP/IP host sends data can be viewed as a 5-step process. The first 4 steps relate to the encapsulation performed by the 4 TCP/IP layers, and the last step is the actual physical transmission of the data by the host. What's the 2n Step 2 Encapsulate the data supplied by the application layer inside a transport layer header. For end-user applications, a TCP or UDP header is typically used.
The process by which a TCP/IP host sends data can be viewed as a 5-step process. The first 4 steps relate to the encapsulation performed by the 4 TCP/IP layers, and the last step is the actual physical transmission of the data by the host. What's the 3r Step 3 Encapsulate the data supplied by the transport layer inside an internet layer (IP) header. IP is the only protocol available in the TCP/IP network model.
The process by which a TCP/IP host sends data can be viewed as a 5-step process. The first 4 steps relate to the encapsulation performed by the 4 TCP/IP layers, and the last step is the actual physical transmission of the data by the host. What's the 4t Step 4 Encapsulate the data supplied by the internet layer inside a network access layer header and trailer. This is the only layer that uses both a header and a trailer.
The process by which a TCP/IP host sends data can be viewed as a 5-step process. The first 4 steps relate to the encapsulation performed by the 4 TCP/IP layers, and the last step is the actual physical transmission of the data by the host. What's the 5t Step 5 Transmit the bits. The physical layer encodes a signal onto the medium to transmit the frame.
TCP/IP’s internet layer, as implemented mainly by IP, equates most directly to the OSI network layer. everyone uses the OSI standard when describing other protocols. So, using this convention, IP is a _____ layer protocol. network
OSI network layer defines_________, as does the TCP/IP internet layer. logical addressing and routing
TCP/IP transport layer defines many functions, including error recovery, as does the OSI transport layer—so TCP is called a transport layer, or Layer _, protocol. 4
The upper layers of the OSI reference model (application, presentation, and session—Layers 7, 6, and 5) define functions focused on the _______ application
The lower four layers (_______,_______,______,_______)—Layers 4, 3, 2, and 1) define functions focused on endto- end delivery of the data transport, network, data link, and physical
Which OSI layer # is LAN Switching based up? Layer 2
Which OSI layer # is Routing based upon? Layer 3
Define Layer 7 of the OSI Model Layer 7 Interfaces between network and application software. Also includes authentication services.
Define Layer 6 of the OSI Model Defines the format and organization of data. Includes encryption.
Define Layer 5 of the OSI Model The session layer defines how to start, control, and end conversations (called sessions).Establishes and maintains end-to-end bidirectional flows between endpoints. Includes managing transaction flows.
Define Layer 4 of the OSI Model Provides a variety of services between two host computers, including connection establishment and termination, flow control, error recovery, and segmentation of large data blocks into smaller parts for transmission.
Define Layer 3 of the OSI Model Logical addressing, routing, and path determination.
Define Layer 2 of the OSI Model Formats data into frames appropriate for transmission onto some physical medium. Defines rules for when the medium can be used. Defines means by which to recognize transmission errors.
Define Layer 1 of the OSI Model Defines the electrical, optical, cabling, connectors, and procedural details required for transmitting bits, represented as some form of energy passing over a physical medium.
Give some examples of protocols and devices associated with these OSI layers Application, presentation, session (Layers 5–7) Protocols:Telnet, HTTP, FTP, SMTP, POP3, VoIP, SNMP Devices:Firewall, intrusion detection system
Give examples of protocols associated with OSI layer Transport (Layer 4) protocols-TCP and UDP
Name a protocol and device associated with this OSI Layer Network (Layer 3) protocol- IP device- Router
Give some examples of protocols and devices associated with this OSI layer Data link (Layer 2) Protocols-Ethernet (IEEE 802.3), HDLC, Frame Relay, PPP Devices-LAN switch, wireless access point, cable modem, DSL modem
Give some examples of protocols and devices associated with this OSI layer Physical (Layer 1) Protocols-RJ-45, EIA/TIA-232, V.35, Ethernet (IEEE 802.3) Devices-LAN hub, repeater
Many benefits can be gained from the process of breaking up the functions or tasks of networking into smaller chunks, called layers, and defining standard interfaces between these layers.Name Some.... Less Complex-network models break the concepts into smaller parts Standard Interfaces—standard interface definitions between each layer allow for open competition btwn vendors
Many benefits can be gained from the process of breaking up the functions or tasks of networking into smaller chunks, called layers, and defining standard interfaces between these layers.Name Some.... Easier to learn—Humans can more easily discuss&learn about many details of a protocol spec. -Easier to dev—reduced complexity allows easier prog changes&faster product development.
Many benefits can be gained from the process of breaking up the functions or tasks of networking into smaller chunks, called layers, and defining standard interfaces between these layers.Name Some.... -Multivendor interoperability—Creating products to meet the same networking standards means comps&networking gear from multiple vendors can work in same network Modular engineering—vendor can write sw that implements higher layers—for e, a web browser
OSI defines processes by which a higher layer asks for services from the next lower layer. To provide the services, the lower layer encapsulates the higher layer’s data behind a _____ header
OSI Encapsulation....OSI uses a more generic term: protocol data unit, or PDU. A PDU represents what ? the bits that include the headers and trailers for that layer, as well as the encapsulated data
What type of packet is a PDU? an IP packet. an IP packet is a Layer 3 PDU because IP is a Layer 3 protocol. You can also say L3PDU.
How does the OSI define encapsulation? All layers except the lowest layer define a header, with the data from the next higher layer being encapsulated behind the header
The data link layer defines both a ________ and a _____ places the Layer 3 PDU between the ____ and ______. header and a trailer
Which is true about cabling of a typical modern Ethernet LAN? Connect each device in series using coaxial cabling, OR in series using UTP cabling,OR to a centralized LAN hub using UTP cabling, OR to a centralized LAN switch using UTP cabling connect each device to a centralized LAN switch using UTP cabling.
Which is true about the cabling of a 10BASE2 Ethernet LAN? Connect each device in series using coaxial cabling, OR in series using UTP cabling, OR to a centralized LAN hub using UTP cabling, OR to a centralized LAN switch using UTP cabling Connect each device using coaxial cabling.
On an ethernet crossover cable, Pins 1 and 2 on one end of the cable connect to pins _ and _ on the other end of the cable. 3 and 6
Each answer lists two types of devices used in a 100BASE-TX network. If they were connected w/UTP Eth cables, which pairs of devices would need a straight-through cable? a. PC&router b. PC&sw c. Hub&sw d. Router&hub e. Wireless access point(Eth por B, D, and E.
Is it true or false that with CSMA/CD algorithm? Collisions can happen, but the algorithm defines how the computers should notice a collision & how to recover. TRUE
When all devices are connected to an Ethernet hub, it is what type of domain? Collision
Describe two limitations of using a hub as opposed to using a switch 1)Hubs create a single electrical bus to which all devices connect, causing the devices to share the bandwidth. 2) Hubs allow collisions to occur when two attached devices send data at the same time.
Which of the following terms describe Ethernet addresses that can be used to communicate with more than one device at a time? There are 2 answers a. Burned-in address b. Unicast address c. Broadcast address d. Multicast address c. Broadcast address d. Multicast address
Which of the following is one of the functions of OSI Layer 2 protocols? a. Framing b. Delivery of bits from one device to another c. Error recovery d. Defining the size and shape of Ethernet cards A. Framing
Which of the following is true about the Ethernet FCS field? a. It is used for error recovery. b. It is 2 bytes long. c. It resides in the Ethernet trailer, not the Ethernet header. d. It is used for encryption. e. None of the other answers is correc c. It resides in the Ethernet trailer, not the Ethernet header.
______________ refers to a family of standards that together define the physical and data link layers of the world’s most popular type of LAN Ethernet
the most commonly used Ethernet standards allow the use of,_____________ cabling inexpensive unshielded twisted-pair (UTP)
for the data link layer, the IEEE separates the functions into two sublayers ■ The 802.3 Media Access Control (MAC) sublayer ■ The 802.2 Logical Link Control (LLC) sublayer
Most of the standards define a different variation of Ethernet at the physical layer, with differences in _____ and ________ speed and types of cabling
Each new physical layer standard from the IEEE requires many differences at the physical layer. However, each of these physical layer standards uses the exact same ______ header, and each uses the upper LLC sublayer as well 802.3 header
To build and create a modern LAN using any of the UTP-based types of Ethernet LANs listed in Table 3-2, you need the following components ■ Computers that have an Ethernet network interface card (NIC) installed ■ Either an Ethernet hub or Ethernet switch ■ UTP cables to connect each PC to the hub or switch
LAN is the perfect, small-scale solution for ..... file sharing,file transfers,gaming,printer sharing
The 802.3 committee worked on physical layer standards as well as a subpart of the data link layer called______________ Media Access Control (MAC)
The IEEE assigned the other functions of the data link layer to the 802.2 committee, calling this part of the data link layer the _______________ sublayer Logical Link Control (LLC)
old Ethernet 10BASE2 network, which uses a single electrical bus, created with _____cable and Ethernet cards coaxial
the two early Ethernet specifications, 10BASE5 and 10BASE2. These two Ethernet specifications defined the details of the ______ and _____ link layers of early Ethernet networks. physical and data
10BASE2 or 10BASE5 network use a _______ bus single
a specification for how to ensure that only one device sends traffic on the Ethernet at one time This algorithm, known as the carrier sense multiple access with collision detection (CSMA/CD) algorithm, defines how the bus is accessed.
This describes what specification.... A device that wants to send a frame waits until the LAN is silent—in other words, no frames are currently being sent—before attempting to send an electrical signal. CSMA/CD algorithm
So, all devices on a 10BASE5 or 10BASE2 Ethernet need to use ____to avoid collisions and to recover when inadvertent collisions occur. CSMA/CD
___________ means that when electrical signals pass over a wire, the signal strength gets weaker the farther along the cable it travels Attenuation
What connects to multiple cable segments, receive the electrical signal on one cable, interpret the bits as 1s and 0s, and generate a brand-new, clean, strong signal out the other cable? Repeaters
Because the repeater does not interpret what the bits mean, but it does examine and generate electrical signals,a Repeater is considered to operate at Layer ____ 1
The original Ethernet LANs created an electrical ____ to which all devices connected bus
Because collisions could occur on this bus, Ethernet defined the _________, which defined a way to both avoid collisions and take action when collisions occurred CSMA/CD algorithm
__________ extended the length of LANs by cleaning up the electrical signal and repeating it—a Layer 1 function—but without interpreting the meaning of the electrical signal Repeaters
10BASE-T solved several problems with the early 10BASE5 and 10BASE2 Ethernet specifications. What were they? -allowed the use of UTP telephone cabling that was already installed. -the concept of cabling each device to a centralized connection point
_________are essentially repeaters with multiple physical ports. It simply regenerates the electrical signal that comes in one port and sends the same signal out every other port Hubs
With 10BASE-T, a cable connects each device to the ____, so a single cable problem affects only one device Hub
The original Ethernet LANs created an electrical ___ to which all devices connected Bus
10BASE2 and 10BASE5 ______extended the length of LANs by cleaning up the electrical signal and repeating it—a Layer 1 function—but without interpreting the meaning of the electrical signal Repeaters
Hubs are ______ that provide a centralized connection point for UTP cabling—but they still create a single electrical bus, shared by the various devices, just like 10BASE5 and 10BASE2. repeaters
Because collisions could occur in any of these cases, Ethernet defines the_____________, which tells devices how to both avoid collisions and take action when collisions do occur. CSMA/CD algorithm
The three most common Ethernet standards used today—____________,_________________,___________—use UTP cabling 10BASE-T (Ethernet), 100BASE-TX (Fast Ethernet, or FE), and 1000BASE-T (Gigabit Ethernet, or GE)
networking devices create an electrical circuit using each wire pair, and vary the signal as defined by the encoding scheme, to send ____over the wire pair. bits
devices on opposite ends of a cable that use the same pair of pins to transmit need a ________________ crossover cable
Devices that use an opposite pair of pins to transmit need a __________ cable straight-through
the cables connecting the switches—referred to as______—require crossover cables. trunks
The logic of waiting to send until the LAN is silent is called _____ duplex.A device either sends or receives at any point in time, but never both at the same time. half duplex
defines the set of devices whose frames could collide Collision Domain
Name something that switches do. Switches interpret the bits in the received frame so that they can typically send the frame out the one required port, rather than all other ports
Name something that switches do.. If a switch needs to forward multiple frames out the same port, the switch buffers the frames in memory, sending one at a time, thereby avoiding collisions
The switch’s logic requires that the switch look at the _____ header, which is considered a Layer 2 feature. As a result, switches are considered to operate as a Layer 2 device, whereas hubs are Layer 1 devices Ethernet
When a switch knows that forwarding more than one frame to a device would cause a collision, it temporarily holds it in memory until the first frame has been completely sent. Another word for this is Buffering
Devices connected to one switch port do not share their bandwidth with devices connected to another switch port. Each has its own separate _______, meaning that a switch with 100-Mbps ports has 100 Mbps of bandwidth per port Bandwidth
shared Ethernet means that the LAN bandwidth is ______ among the devices on the LAN because they must take turns using the LAN because of the CSMA/CD algorithm. Shared
LAN switches with only one device cabled to each port of the switch allow the use of _____-duplex. This means that an Ethernet card can send and receive concurrently. full-duplex
____________identifies either individual devices or groups of devices on a LAN. Each address is 6 bytes long, is usually written in hexadecimal Ethernet LAN addressing
__________ Ethernet addresses identify a single LAN card. This identifies the sender and receiver of an ethernet frame. Unicast
IEEE requires globally unique unicast ____ addresses on all LAN interface cards. (IEEE calls them ___ addresses because the ___ protocols such as IEEE 802.3 define the addressing details.) MAC. To ensure a unique MAC address, the Ethernet card manufacturers encode the MAC address onto the card, usually in a ROM chip
_____ addresses identify more than one LAN interface card Group
The IEEE defines two general categories of group addresses for Ethernet: Broadcast addresses and Multicast addresses.
The most often used of the IEEE group MAC addresses, the_____ address, has a value of FFFF.FFFF.FFFF (hexadecimal notation). The______ address implies that all devices on the LAN should process the frame Broadcast
______ addresses are used to allow a subset of devices on a LAN to communicate. When IP ______ over an Ethernet, the _____ MAC addresses used by IP follow this format: 0100.5exx.xxxx, where any value can be used in the last half of the address Multicast. multicasts
__________defines the meaning of the bits transmitted and received over a network. Framing
___________is the process of discovering if a frame’s bits changed as a result of being sent over the network Error detection...The bits might change for many small reasons, but generally such errors occur as a result of some kind of electrical interference
The Ethernet __________ field in the Ethernet trailer—the only field in the Ethernet trailer—allows a device receiving an Ethernet frame to detect whether the bits have changed during transmission Frame Check Sequence (FCS)
the process of how a router should forward, or route, packets of data routing
TCP/IP _______ _________layer defines the protocols and hardware required to deliver data across some physical network network access
This TCP/IP layer this layer defines how to physically connect a host computer to the physical media over which data can be transmitted. network access
every layer in any networking model provides ________to the layer above it in the model services
IP uses the _______ ________ layer protocols to deliver an IP packet to the next router or host, with each router repeating the process until the packet arrives at the destination network access
The process by which a TCP/IP host sends data can be viewed as a five-step process. The first four steps relate to the _______ performed by the four TCP/IP layers, and the last step is the actual physical transmission of the data by the host. encapsulation
Is this step 1,2,3,4,or 5 of TCP/IPs host sending data? Create and encapsulate the application data with any required application layer headers. For ex, the HTTP OK message can be returned in anHTTP header, followed by part of the contents of a web page 1
Is this step 1,2,3,4,or 5 of TCP/IPs host sending data? Encapsulate the data supplied by the application layer inside a transport layer header. For end-user applications, a TCP or UDP header is typically used. 2
Is this step 1,2,3,4,or 5 of TCP/IPs host sending data?Encapsulate the data supplied by the transport layer inside an internet layer (IP) header. IP is the only protocol available in the TCP/IP network model. 3
Is this step 1,2,3,4,or 5 of TCP/IPs host sending data?Encapsulate the data supplied by the internet layer inside a network access layer header and trailer. This is the only layer that uses both a header and a trailer. 4
Is this step 1,2,3,4,or 5 of TCP/IPs host sending data? Transmit the bits. The physical layer encodes a signal onto the medium to transmit the frame. 5
The upper layers of the OSI reference model (application, presentation, and session—Layers 7, 6, and 5) define functions focused on the________ application
The lower four layers (transport,network, data link, and physical—Layers 4, 3, 2, and 1) define functions focused on endto-end delivery of the _____ data
OSI defines encapsulation similarly to how TCP/IP defines it. All layers except the ____ layer define a header, with the data from the next higher layer being encapsulated behind the header. lowest
Which of the following best describes the main function of OSI Layer 1 protocols? a. Framing b. Delivery of bits from one device to another c. Addressing d. Local Management Interface (LMI) e. DLCI b. Delivery of bits from one device to another
Which of the following typically connects to a four-wire line provided by a telco? a. Router serial interface b. CSU/DSU c. Transceiver d. Switch serial interface b. CSU/DSU
Which of the following typically connects to a V.35 or RS-232 end of a cable when cabling a leased line? a. Router serial interface b. CSU/DSU c. Transceiver d. Switch serial interface b. CSU/DSU
On a point-to-point WAN link using a leased line btwn 2 routers located hundreds of miles apart, what devices are DTE devices? a. Routers b. CSU/DSU c. The central office equip d. A chip on the processor of each router e. None of these answers . a. Routers
What function of OSI Layer 2 is specified by the protocol standard for PPP, but is implemented with a Cisco proprietary header field for HDLC? Identifying the type of protocol that is inside the frame
What is the name of the Frame Relay field used to identify Frame Relay virtual circuits? Data-link connection identifier
a building where the telco locates the devices used to create its own network CO, or Central Office
Typically, routers connect to a device called an external channel service unit/data service unit (CSU/DSU)
What is a CO? a CO is just a building where the telco locates the devices used to create its own network
refers to the point at which the telco’s responsibility is on one side and the customer’s responsibility is on the other Demarc
refers to devices that are at the customer site, from the telco’s perspective CPE Customer Premises Equipment
The cable connecting the router to the CSU/DSU uses a connector that fits the router _____ interface on the router side, and a standardized WAN connector type that matches the CSU/DSU interface on the CSU/DSU end of the cable. Serial
The cable between the CSU/DSU and the telco CO typically uses an RJ-__ connector to connect to the CSU/DSU; RJ48,the RJ-48 connector has the same size and shape as the RJ-45 connector used for Ethernet cables.
Every WAN circuit ordered from a service provider runs at one of many possible predefined speeds.This is referred to as clock rate,bandwidth,or link speed
To make the link work, the various devices need to synchronize their clocks so that they run at exactly the same speed—a process called ____ synchronization
The device that provides
clocking, typically the CSU/DSU, is considered to be the data communications equipment or DCE
The device receiving clocking,typically the router is referred to as the data terminal equipment, or DTE
What command will be added to that router to define the speed clock rate
The term ____ refers to the standard for a single 64-kbps line digital signal level 0 (DS0)
Today, most telcos offer leased lines in multiples of 64 kbps. The _________ standard defines a single line that supports 24 DS0s digital signal level 1 (DS1)
for a speed of 1.544 Mbps. (A DS1 is also called a __ line.) T1.Another option is a digital signal level 3 (DS3) service, also called a T3 line, which holds 28 DS1s.
The combination of multiple slower-speed lines and channels into one fasterspeed line or channel—for instance, combining 24 DS0s into a single T1 line—is generally called time-division multiplexing (TDM).
WAN protocols used on point-to-point serial links provide the basic function of data delivery across that one link. The two most popular data link layer protocols used on point to-point links are High-Level Data Link Control (HDLC) and Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP).
What does HDLC need to do? *determine if the data passed the link without any errors. Note:HDLC discards the frame if errors occurred. *identify the type of packet inside the HDLC frame so the receiving device knows the packet type
HDLC performs the function of identifying the encapsulated data, just like Ethernet. When a router receives an HDLC frame, it wants to know what type of ___ is held inside the frame. packet
The Cisco implementation of HDLC includes a ______ ______ field that identifies the type of packet inside the frame. Protocol Type
When connecting a Cisco router to another vendor’s router over a point-to-point serial link, ___ is the data link layer protocol of choice. PPP.PPP uses a 2-byte Protocol Type field. However, because the Protocol Type field is part of the standard for PPP, any vendor that conforms to the PPP standard can communicate with other vendor products.
____has become the most popular and feature-rich of WAN data link layer protocols. PPP
In a packet-switching service, a company can connect a large number of __ to the packet-switching service, using a single serial link from each ___ into the packet-switching service. Once connected, each _____ can send packets to all the other _____ routers router router routers
Two types of packet-switching service are very popular today, _____ and _____ Frame Relay and Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)with Frame Relay being much more common
For a ____ ______service, a leased line is installed between each router and a nearby ___ ______ switch; these links are called access links. Frame Relay
Frame Relay access links run at the same speed and use the same signaling standards as do point-to-point leased lines. However, instead of extending from one router to the other, each leased line runs from one router to a ____ _____ _______ Frame Relay switch
The difference between Frame Relay and point-to-point links is that the equipment in the _____actually examines the data frames sent by the router telco
Frame Relay defines its own data-link header and trailer. Each Frame Relay header holds an address field called a ______ ______ _______ datalink connection identifier (DLCI)
The WAN switch forwards the frame based on the ____, sending the frame through the provider’s network until it gets to the remote-site router on the other side of the Frame Relay cloud. DLCI, datalink connection identifier
The Frame Relay header and trailer are defined by a protocol called ______ _____ _____ -______ Link Access Procedure – Frame (LAPF)
To achieve the main goal of delivering data across the link and to check for errors and identify the packet type, HDLC defines____ framing
The HDLC header includes an Address field and a Protocol Type field, with the trailer containing a ____ sequence frame check sequence(FCS) field.
HDLC defines a __-byte Address field 1
HDLC performs error detection just like Ethernet—it uses an ____ field in the HDLC trailer.And just like Ethernet, if a received frame has errors in it, the device receiving the frame discards the frame, with no error recovery performed by HDLC. FCS
Service providers offer a class of WAN services, different from leased lines, that can be categorized as _______services. packet-switching
This term means that the service provider actually chooses where to send each data packet sent into the provider’s network, switching one packet to one device, and the next packet to another packet-switching
Frame Relay protocols most closely resemble OSI Layer 2 protocols; the term usually used for the bits sent by a Layer 2 device is ______ frame
With Frame Relay, the Frame Relay switches are called ___ DCE.DCE refers to the device providing the service
With Frame Relay, the customer equipment—routers, in this case—are called ____ DTE.DTE refers to the device needing the frame-switching service
The logical path that a frame travels between each pair of routers is called a _____ ______ _____ ______ Frame Relay Virtual Circuit
____ ______ share the access link and the Frame Relay network. Virtual Circuits.with large networks with many WAN sites that need to connect to a central location, only one physical access link is required from the main site router to the Frame Relay network
leased line, leased circuit, link, serial link, serial line, point-to-point link, circuit ( These are all synonyms for what?) a point-to-point leased line
What does CPE stand for? Customer Premises Equipment.Any equipment related to communications that is located at the customer site, as opposed to inside the telephone company’s network
Frame Relay is designed with the concept of a ______ _______ _______). Each VC has a ____, which is a guarantee by the provider that a particular VC gets at least that much bandwidth. committed information rate (CIR) CIR
A serial link between two routers, created without CSU/DSUs, by connecting a DTE cable to one router and a DCE cable to the other. Typically used in labs to build serial links without the expense of an actual leased line from the telco Back-to-Back link
In Frame Relay, the physical serial link that connects a Frame Relay DTE device, usually a router, to a Frame Relay switch. The ___ ______ uses the same physical layer standards as do point-to-point leased lines. access link
What is this? From a physical layer perspective, the device providing the clocking on a WAN link, typically a CSU/DSU, is the __. From a packet-switching perspective, the service provider’s switch, to which a router might connect, is considered the ___ Data communications equipment.DCE (Layer 1)
What is this? From a Layer 1 perspective, the ___ synchronizes its clock based on the clock sent by the DCE. From a packet-switching perspective, the ___is the device outside the service provider’s network, typically a router Data terminal equipment. DTE( Layer 1)
______ ______ ______ _A 64-kbps line or channel of a faster line inside a telco whose origins are to support a single voice call using the original voice (PCM) codecs. Digital signal level 0 -DS0
____ ____ ____ _ A 1.544-Mbps line from the telco, with 24 DS0 channels of 64 kbps each, plus an 8-kbps management and framing channel. Also called a T1. DS1 Digital signal level 1
A type of cable with many different styles of connectors used to connect a router to an external CSU/DSU on a leased-line installation. Serial Cable
a device will try to use the same speed as another device on the other end of a serial link. By examining transitions between voltage states on the link, the device can notice slight variations in the speed on each end&can adjust its speed accordingly. synchronous
In packet-switched services like Frame Relay, the ability of 2 DTE devices (typically routers) to send&receive data directly to each other, just as a physical leased line, but w/out a physical circuit. Virtual Circuit
Which of the following are functions of OSI Layer 3 protocols? a. Logical addressing b. Physical addressing c. Path selection d. Arbitration e. Error recovery Logical addressing and path selection
Imagine that PC1 needs to send some data to PC2, and PC1 and PC2 are separated by several routers. What are the largest entities that make it from PC1 to PC2? a. Frame b. Segment c. Packet d. L5 PDU e. L3 PDU f. L1 PDU c. Packet and e. L3 PDU
Two routers that are connected with a point-to-point HDLC serial link. Each router has an Ethernet, with PC1 sharing the Ethernet with Router1, and PC2 sharing the Ethernet with Router2. When PC1 sends data to PC2, what does Router 1 do? Router1 strips the Ethernet header and trailer off the frame received from PC1,never to be used again.
What is the range of values for the first octet for Class A IP networks? a. 0 to 127 b. 0 to 126 c. 1 to 127 d. 1 to 126 e. 128 to 191 f. 128 to 192 d. 1 to 126
PC1 and PC2 are on two different Ethernets that are separated by an IP router. PC1’s
IP address is 10.1.1.1, and no subnetting is used. Which of the following addresses could be used for PC2? a. 10.1.1.2 b. 10.2.2.2 c. 10.200.200.1 d. 9.1.1.1 e. 225.1.1.1 f. 1.1.1.1 D 9.1.1.1 and F. 1.1.1.1 Without any subnetting in use, all addresses in the same network as 10.1.1.1—all addresses in Class A network 10.0.0.0—must be on the same LAN.Addresses separated from that network by some router can't be in network 10.0.0.0.
Each Class B network contains how many IP addresses that can be assigned to hosts? a. 16,777,214 b. 16,777,216 c. 65,536 d. 65,534 e. 65,532 f. 32,768 g. 32,766 d. 65,534
Each Class C network contains how many IP addresses that can be assigned to hosts? a. 65,534 b. 65,532 c. 32,768 d. 32,766 e. 256 f. 254 f. 254
Which of the following does a router normally use when making a decision about routing TCP/IP packets? a. Destination MAC address b. Source MAC address c. Destination IP address d. Source IP address e. Destination MAC and IP address c. Destination IP address
These are functions of what protocol? Advertising known routes to neighboring routers. and Learning routes, and putting those routes into the routing table, for routes advertised to the router by its neighboring routers. Routing Protocol
Which of the following protocols allows a client PC to discover the IP address of another computer based on that other computer’s name? a. ARP b. RARP c. DNS d. DHCP c. DNS
Which of the following protocols allows a client PC to request assignment of an IP address as well as learn its default gateway? a. ARP b. RARP c. DNS d. DHCP d. DHCP
What is the process of forwarding packets (Layer 3 PDUs) ? Routing
______ _______ enables the routing process to identify a packet’s source and destination. Logical Addressing
Addresses that can be used regardless of the type of physical networks used, providing each device (at least) one address. Logical Addressing
A protocol that aids routers by dynamically learning about the groups of addresses in the network, which in turn allows the routing (forwarding) process to work well. Routing Protocol
The network layer also relies on what other utilities? For TCP/IP, these utilities include Domain Name System (DNS), Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP), Address Resolution Protocol (ARP), and ping.
_____ _______ sometimes is used to mean the same thing as routing protocol, sometimes is used to refer to the routing (forwarding) of packets, and sometimes is used for both functions. Path Selection
The main job of IP is to route data _____ from the source host to the destination host. (packets)
IP tries to deliver each packet, but if a router or host’s IP process cannot deliver the packet, it is discarded—with no error recovery. True or False True
The ______ ______ for any particular network layer protocol contains a list of network layer address groupings routing table
How does a router know where to forward packets? The router compares the destination network layer address in the packet to the entries in the routing table and makes a match. This matching entry in the routing table tells this router where to forward the packet next.
the router compares the packet’s destination network layer (Layer 3) address to the ______listed in its routing table, and the matched routing table entry tells this router where to forward the packet next groups
An example of how the router determines which data-link address to use is the IP _____ ______ _______. Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
______ is used to dynamically learn the data-link address of an IP host connected to a LAN Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
The routing process uses the ____ _____ layer to encapsulate the Layer 3 packets into Layer 2 frames for transmission across each successive data link. data link
The process of routing forwards Layer 3 packets, also called Layer 3 protocol data units (L3 PDU), based on the destination Layer 3 _____ in the packet address
_____ layer protocols define the format and meaning of logical addresses. Network
network layer protocols ______ addresses. ( for efficiency) group
The end goal of each routing protocol is to fill the ____ ______ with all known destination groups and with the best route to reach each group routing table
A ______ protocol learns routes and puts those routes in a routing table routing
A ______ protocol defines the type of packet forwarded, or routed, through a network routed
Any device that can send and receive IP packets is called an IP _____ host
IP addresses consist of a ___-bit number, usually written in dotted-decimal notation 32
8 bits = what? a byte
Each decimal number in an IP address is called an _____ octet.octet is just a vendor neutral term for byte
each network interface uses a unique ___ _____ IP address
The original specifications for TCP/IP grouped IP addresses into sets of consecutive addresses called IP ________ networks. The addresses in a single network have the same numeric value in the first part of all addresses in the network
All IP addresses in the same group must ____ be separated by a router. NOT
IP addresses separated by a ____ must be in different groups router
What are two other words for IP addresses in the same group? network or subnet
IP defines three different network ______ for addresses used by individual hosts—addresses called unicast IP addresses. classes.These three network classes are called A, B, and C.
all addresses in the same Class A, B, or C network have the same numeric value ______ portion of the addresses. The rest of the address is called the ____ portion of the address network and host
Class A networks have a _-byte-long network part. That leaves _ bytes for the rest of the address, called the host part. 1 and 3
Class B networks have a _-byte-long network part, leaving _ bytes for the host portion of the address. 2 and 2
Class C networks have a _-byte-long network part, leaving only _ byte for the host part 3 and 1
How many reserved host addresses are there for network? 2
Can network numbers be assigned to an interface to be used as an IP address ? No.Network numbers represent the group of all IP addresses in the network.the network numbers themselves are reserved and cannot be used as an IP address for a device.
The network number and the network _____ address in each network is reserved broadcast. or directed broadcast address. This reserved number cannot be assigned to a host for use as an IP address. However, packets sent to a network broadcast address are forwarded to all devices in the network
Describe some characteristics about the format of Ethernet addresses? 1) Each manufacturer puts a unique code into the first 3 bytes of the address. 2) Each manufacturer puts a unique code into the first half of the address. 3)The part of the address that holds this manufacturer’s code is called the OUI.
Created by: mlletech