Busy. Please wait.

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 

Username is available taken
show password


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
We do not share your email address with others. It is only used to allow you to reset your password. For details read our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.

Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.

Remove ads
Don't know
remaining cards
To flip the current card, click it or press the Spacebar key.  To move the current card to one of the three colored boxes, click on the box.  You may also press the UP ARROW key to move the card to the "Know" box, the DOWN ARROW key to move the card to the "Don't know" box, or the RIGHT ARROW key to move the card to the Remaining box.  You may also click on the card displayed in any of the three boxes to bring that card back to the center.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
restart all cards

Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

GI Lab Studies


Zollinger Ellison syndrome Recurrent PUD; Gastrinoma increases gastrin prodn; Gastric acid hypersecretion
Zollinger Ellison labs elevated acid (gastric pH); serum gastrin; imaging study to locate primary tumor
Carcinoid syndrome Tumors of argentaffin (secretory) cells; assoc w/carcinoid tumor of sm bowel mets to liver; sx flushing & diarrhea
Amylase (panc disorders): specimens: serum, urine, pleural fluid, peritoneal fluid; Lipase: serum
Amylase: pronounced elevation in: acute pancreatitis, pancreatic pseudocyst
Amylase: Moderate elevation in: panc ca, mumps, salivary gland inflam, perforated peptic ulcer
Lipase breaks down TGs; very specific for panc dz (> amylase); pronounced elevation in acute pancreatitis, pancreatic pseudocyst; mod elev in panc ca
Pancreas enzymes Amylase, Lipase
Liver enzymes AST, ALT, GGT, Alk phos
Biliary enzymes Alk phos; GGT, (bilirubin)
Hepatic function panel Na, K, Cl, CO2, glucose, BUN, Cr, Ca, albumin, phosphorus
Albumin part of total protein formed in liver; 14-20 d half life; in liver damage, levels drop slowly; prealbumin more sensitive to rapid damage
ALT & AST: where found ALT: high in liver (mod in kidney, heart, sk mx); ALT more specific for liver damage than AST or alk phos; AST: high in liver, heart, brain, sk mx
ALT/AST: abnml labs ALT: liver injury > cirrhosis/obstruction; AST: cell necrosis
Biliary colic GS: transient cystic duct obstruction; confirm dx with US or CT
Cholecystitis stone in cystic duct; inc WBC w/left shift; inc amylase/lipase; mild inc AST, ALT, bili, Alk phos
Choledocholithiasis stone in CBD; mild inc bili; mod inc alk phos
Cholangitis infxn biliary tree; inc LFT & WBC
GGT highest in liver/biliary tract; asses cholestasis & biliary obstruction (d/t mets?); elevated d/t EtOH
Alk phos rapidly div/metab active cells; high in PG, bone formation, intestinal dz
Hyperbili: conj vs unconj unconj 15-20% of TBil (accelerated RBC hemolysis, hepatitis, drugs); conj >50% TBil (intrahepatic cholestasis: biliary cirrhosis, drugs; hepatocellular damage: drugs, sepsis, inflam, scarring; obstruction: GS)
LFTs: hepatitis pattern A/G ratio >1; ALT >1000; ALT > AST; GGT high if EtOH hep; Bili D>I
LFTs: cirrhosis pattern A/G ratio <1; AST > ALT; GGT high if EtOH/biliary cirrhosis; Bili I > D
ALT/AST elevation: defns mild elev <5x ULN; mod elev 5-10 x nml; marked elev >10 x nml
If alk phos high out of proportion to ALT/AST: evaluate cholestasis with US/CT
UC labs Anemia; Low serum alb; Elevated ESR; Neg stool cx
Normal peritoneal fluid: 50 ml vol; straw-colored & clear; < 100,000 RBCs/microL; <300 WBCs/microL
Paracentesis: testing Cell counts, cytology, Gram stain, chem testing (glucose, amylase, ammonia, alk phos)
Diagnostic Peritoneal Lavage: indications Eval of abd trauma, intraperitoneal hemorrhage, ruptured intestine or other organs
Normal D-xylose tests suggests: pancreatic insufficiency, reduced bile salts, lymphatic obstruction (all may be related to malabsorption)
Hydrogen breath test is used to diagnose: lactase deficiency
Amylase: false negative may be related to: Acute on chronic pancreatitis (eg, EtOH). Elevated TG (associated decreased amylase activity)
Amylase: false positive may be related to: Other abdominal/salivary gland process. Acidemia. Renal failure. Macroamylasemia.
Lipase: false positive may be related to: Renal failure. Other abdominal process. DKA. HIV. Macrolipasemia.
Created by: Abarnard