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Block 7 Gearheart 1

Gearheart lecture 1 - intro and pulmonary phys

Which parts of respiratory system are "conducting system"? nose, pharynx, larynx, tracea, bronchi, bronchiole, and terminal bronchioles
Which parts of respiratory system are "respiratory system"? respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs, alveoli
Where does the pathology usually start in respiratory system? bronchi
What are the three basic steps of respiration? pulmonary ventilation, external respiration, internal respiration
What activity occurs at external respiration? interaction between respiratory and circulatory system = transfer of gases lungs to blood or blood to lungs
What activity occurs in internal respiration? interaction between circulatory system and cells. transfer of gases between blood to cells and cells to blood.
Where does the cardiovascular system begin? internal respiration
What is the relationship between diameter of respiratory vessels and surface area? Inverse = as the diameter gets smaller the surface area gets bigger
Principle role of airways? filter, warm and moisten air while conducting it
What is necessary to increase the volume of sound created by the vocal cords? push air harder
Who gets cancer of the larynx almost exclusively smokers
What are the layers of the trachea? What cells line the first layer? 1. mucosa 2. submucosa 3. hyaline cartilage 4. adventitia (which binds it to other organs pseudostratified columnar with cilia and goblet cells
What lines the second layer of tracheal cells submucosa lined by loose connective tissue and seromucous glands
Why are there only two lobes for the left lung? make room for heart
How many primary bronchi? Secondary Bronchi? Tertiary bronchi? bronchioles? What does each level supply? 2 primary bronchi supply the lung. 3 R & 2 L secondary bronchi supply each lobe (aka lobar). Tertiary bronchi supply each bronchopulmonary segment. 14-16 bronchioles form the bronchial tree
What does the terminal bronchiole transition to? How many of these latter structures are found? respiratory bronchiole number 18 per lobe
What is the epithelium change as bronchial tree passes deeper into lungs from pseudostratified ciliated columnar to nonciliated simple cuboidal
Where and how does ANS act in bronchial tree Via Vagus nerve, ANS activates parasympathetic M3 receptors to cause vasoconstriction
What is the activity of the sympathetic trunk Epinephrine released from adrenal gland stimulates Beta-2, alpha 1(minor) to relax and dilate the bronchioles
What is the root problem of an asthmatic or allergic reaction in lungs? constricts DISTAL bronchiole smooth muscle which impeedes airflow
What steps will the lung take if disease or blockage prevents air flow to an aveoli? diverts air to a better functioning alveoli
Why can cardiac output compromise gas exchange? cannot get enough blood through lungs for the exchange to occur
What two membranes enclose and protect the lungs pariteal pleura is outer layer attached to wall of thoracic cavity. Visceral pleura is inner layer covering lungs themselves
Space between two cavities of the membranes surrounding the lungs is called? Filled with? pleural cavity - a small potential space will surfactant
What does a lobule contain? lymphatics, arterioles, venules, terminal bronchioles, respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alverolar sacs, and alveoli
What are the two types of alveolar cells? Purpose? Type I = pneumocyctes, simple squamous cells that allow gas exchange. Type II - septal cells, have microvilli and secrete alveolar fluid which contains surfactant to reduce surface tension
What are the garbage men...or terminators of the alveoli? Alveolar dust cells are macrophages that wander about removing debris
How many and what are the layers of the respiratory membrane? 4 layers: 1st: endothelial membrane of alveolar type I, 2nd: basement membrane of alveolar type I, 3rd: basement membrane of capillary, 4th: endothelial cell of capillary
How many layers must oxygen cross when diffusing into cardiovascular system? 4
Why do interstial lung diseases present respiratory problems? increased number of elastic tissues increase the cell thickness = diffusion distance for gases
What is a common dysfunction seen with layers of alveoli? ARDS - acute respiratory distress syndrome
How much surface area does the average alveoli present? What happens with emphysema? handball court or 70 square meters..which is decreased with emphysema
Which parts of respiratory system are "conducting system"? Ventilation is oxygen delivered to the membrane. Perfusion is blood flowing past membrane
What is boyle's law? Take home message? Easy point to remember the take home message? P1V1 = P2V2 or for lungs P = 1/V...increase pressure, decrease volume or decrease pressure, increase volume..Inhalation increase the lung volume which decrease the pressure
How does charles law relate volume and temperature? What is variable in this equation? V1/T1 = V2/ pressure is the variable
How does Gay-Lussac's law relate temperature and pressure? What is the variable? P1/T1 = P2/ the variable is volume
What are the normal values for atmospheric pressure, alveolar pressure and the change in pressure from outside to inside the lung? atm = 760 mmHg, alv = 755 mmHg, delta P = -5 mmHg
Why is it better to use units in centimeters of water than mercury? What is the difference? Water is 13.6 fold less dense than mercury. Therefore, more sensitive to minute changes. 1mm Hg = 1.36 cm H2O
What is the difference between inspiration and respiration? inspiration is act of bringing air into lungs. Respiration is movement of gases from lungs to blood or blood to cells
What determines the movement of air into and out of lungs? Boyle's Law...P = 1/V..increase in volume decreases pressure...the greater pressure outside the "body" drives the air into the lungs within the "body" And the reverse...
Which pressure should be lower, intrathoracic (Pleural) or intrapulmonic (alveolar) Pleural should always be less than alveolar or develop pneumothorax condition
What muscles operate and how during inspiration? contraction of diaphram flattens it's dome shape which increases the vertical dimension. Contraction of intercostal muscles opens thoracic cavity up and out. Thus Volume increases, Intrapleural pressure decreases as does alveolar pressure
What muscles act in forced inhalation? The so called accessory muscles of inspiration: sternocleidomastoids, scalenes, pectoralis minor lift chest upward when gasping for air
When would a person exhibit forces inhalation? during physical activity or a disease process such as COPD
When does exhalation occur? How? when alveolar pressure increases above atmospheric pressure. The diaphragm and external intercostal muscles relax = chest wall exhibits elastic recoil, decrease volume, increase pressure
When does exhalation become an active process, if it is normally passive? labored breathing when movement of air out of lungs is impeded.
What muscles are used during forced exhalation? internal intercostals depress ribs while abdominal muscles force diaphragm up
What two forces are at "work" in quiet expiration? elastic recoil and surface tension of alveoli which pull the chest inward to increase pressure and decrease volume
Quiz: if alveolar pressure decrease what happens to air? rushes into lungs
What causes pneumothorax? the pleural pressure = intrathoracic = intrapleural pressure goes to zero
What is surface tension in relation to the lungs? inwardly directed force caused by the strong attraction of water molecules for each other
What lowers surface tension? surfactant produced by type II alveolar cells gets between the water molecules to lower the surface tension on the alveoli
How is compliance defined in relationship to lungs? Equation: refers to the distensibility of elastic structure of lungs. Equation: C= delta V / delta P
When volume in the lung is high, how is compliance? What about high pressure? High volume = low compliance, high pressure equals low compliance...because it is inversely related to transpulmonary pressure
What is the term used for the relationship between elasticity of lungs and surface tension? Recoil Pressure: transpulmonary Pressure (Ptr) = Alveolar P - Pleural P
A lung with low recoil pressure has what type of compliance? What volume? High compliance, low volume
Created by: El Diablo 7



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