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nasm ces 4

QuestionAnswer
motions in the sagittal plane flexion and extension
axis of the sagittal plane coronal
example of exercises in the sagittal plane biceps curl, triceps pushdowns, squats, front lunges, calf raises, climbing stairs
motions in the frontal plane adduction/abduction, lateral flexion, eversion/inversion
axis of the frontal plane anterior-posterior
example of exercises in frontal plane side lateral raises, side lunges, side shuffling,
motions of the transverse plane internal/external rotation, left/right spinal rotation, horizontal adduction/abduction
axis of the of the transverse plane longitudinal
exercises in the transverse plane cable rotations, turning lunges, throwing, golfing, swinging a bat
eversion of the foot sole turns towards the ouside of the leg
inversion of the foot sole turns towards the inside of leg
during pronation the foot dorsiflexes, everts, abducts
during pronation the ankle dorsiflexes, everts, abducts
during pronation the knee flexes, adducts, internally rotates
during pronation the hip flexes, adducts, internally rotates
during supination the foot plater flexes, inverts, adducts
during supination the ankle plater flexes, inverts, adducts
during supination the knee extends, abducts, externally rotates
during supination the hip flexes, abducts, externally rotates
during the initial contact of gain, the subtalar joint pronates creating obligatory external rotation of the tibia, femur and pelvis
poor control of pronantion decreases the ability to eccentrically decelerate multi-segmental motion
during the midstance in the gait the subtalar joint supinates leading to the obligatory external rotation of the tibia, femur and pelvis
poor production of supination decreases the ability of the HMS to concentrically produce the appropriate force for push off that can lead to synergistic dominance
during function movements patterns, almost every muscle has the same synergist function to eccentrically decelerate pronantion or to concentrically accelerate supination
an example of a peripipheral joint support system is the rotator cuff that provides dynamic stabilization for the humeral head in relation to the glenoid fossa
posterior fibers of the gluteus medius and the external rotators of the hip provide pelvofemoral stabilization
oblique fibers of the vastus medialis provides patellar stabilization of the knee
in the sagittal plan the latissimus dorsi concentrically extends the humerus
in the sagittal plan the latissimus dorsi eccentrically decelerates the humeral flexion
in the transverse plan the latissimus dorsi concentrically internally rotates the humerus
in the transverse plan the latissimus dorsi eccentrically decelerates humeral external rotation
in the frontal plane the latissmus dorsi concentrically adducts the femerus
in the frontal plane the latissmus dorsi will eccentrically decelerate humeral abduction
lats assist in stabilizing what joints glenohumeral, scapulothoraic, lumbo-pelvic-hip complex
when walking up and down stairs the adductors and abductors will dynamically stabilize the leg from excessive movement in the frontal and transverse planes
during lifting the rotator cuff dynamically stabilizes the shoulder joint
deep cervical flexors are longus coli, longus capitus
deep cervical flexors stabilize the cervical spine, head and keep head from unnessary movement
muscles that are located more centrally to the spine provide inter-segmental stability (support from vertebrae to vertebrae)
muscle that are more lateral to the spine support the spin as a whole
The four muscles that work together in the LS are the gluteus medius, tensor fascia latae (tfl), adductor complex, and quadratus lumborum.
The gluteus medius, tfl and adductors on one side combine with the quadratus lumborum on the other side to control the pelvis and femur (biggest leg bone) in the frontal plane.
if your knees cave in when you do a squat or leg press or your ankles cave in and your toes turn out when you walk or climb stairs, this could indicate possible weakness and/or instability in the LS.
The “Anterior Oblique Subsystem” (AOS) is comprised of: hip adductors, ipsilateral internal obliques, and the contra-lateral external obliques and
which subsystem is relied upon most during the “Swing Phase of gait” The “Anterior Oblique Subsystem” (AOS)
Unilateral Push Patterns also place a primary demand upon which subsystem “Anterior Oblique Subsystem”
The “Posterior Oblique Subsystem” (POS) is comprised of: hip extensors particularly the glutes as well as the contralateral posterior -trunk rotators such as the latissimus dorsi and lumbar multifidus.
which subsystem most highly active in the “Propulsion Phase” of gait. The “Posterior Oblique Subsystem”
Unilateral Pull Patterns rely mostly on the function of which subsystem “Posterior Oblique Subsystem”
The “Deep Longitudinal Subsystem” (DLS) is comprised of the Tibialis Anterior, Peroneus Longus, Biceps Femoris, Sacrotuberous Ligament, Erector Spinae, and the Thoracolumbar Fascia.
which subsystem is in highest demand during heel strike and the Transitional Phase of gait. The “Deep Longitudinal Subsystem” (DLS)
Hip extension movements as well as certain Lunge type exercises will challenge and train which subsystem Deep Longitudinal Subsystem or DLS.
The “Lateral Subsystem” (LS) is comprised of the Hip Abductors such as the Gluteus Medius and Minimus, the ipsilateral adductors, and the contralateral lateral flexors such as the Quadratus Lumborum and Internal Obliques.
which subsystem is relied most upon during the single leg “Stance Phase” of gait for balance and stability. The “Lateral Subsystem” (LS)
Just about any single leg unilateral pushing, pulling or certain lunging exercises are all good for training which subsystem Lateral Subsystem or LS
Unilateral Push Patterns also place a primary demand and will strengthen and improve function of which subsystem upon the “Anterior Oblique Subsystem”
motor response to internal and external environmental stimuli motor learning
how the central nervous system integrates internal and external sensory information with previous experiences to produce a motor response motor control
intergration of motor control processes through practice and experience, leading t a relatively permanent change in the capacity to produce skilled movements motor learning
the change in motor behavior over time throughout the life span motor development
the cumulative neural input from sensory afferent to central nervous system proprioception
the ability of the central nervous system to gather and interpret sensry information to execute the proper motor response sensorimotor integration
sensory information by the body via length-tension relationships and arthrokinematics to monitor movement and environment internal feedback
mechanically sensitive to tissue stresses that are activated during extremes of extension and rotation joint mechanoreptors/ ruffini afferents
mechanically sensitive to to local compression and tensile loading, especially at extreme ranges of motion paciniform afferents
mechanically sensitive to tensile loads and most sensitive at the end ranges of motion golgi afferents
sensitive to mechanical deformation and pain nocioceptors
the cconscious awareness of joint movement and joint position sense that results from proprioceptive input sent to Central nervous system kinesthesia
specialized neural receptors embedded in connecyive tissue that convert mechanical distortions of tissue into neural codes to be conveyed to the central nervous system mechanoreceptors
dynamic joint stabilization the ability of the HMS to stabilize joint during movement
multisensory condition refers to a training environment that provides heightened stimulation to the proprioceptors
muscles that attach from the pelvis to spine global core stabilizers
includes muscles that attach the spine and or pelvis to the extremities movement system
muscles that make up the local stabilization system transverse abdominis, internal oblique, lumber multifidus, pelvic floor muscles, diaphram
muscles that make up the global stabilization system guadratus lumborum, psoas major, external oblique, portions of the internal oblique. rectus medius, adductor complex
muscles that make up the adductor complex adductor magnus, adductor longus, adductor brevis, gracilis, pectineus
when a muscle is stretched very quickly, the muscle spindle contracts, which in turn stimulates the primary afferent fibers that causes the extrafusal fibers to fire, and tension increases in the muscle myotatic stretch reflex
the concept of muscle inhibition caused by a tight agonist, decreasing the neural drive of its functional antagonist altered reciprocal inhibition
the neuromuscular phenomenon that occurs when synergist take over the function of a weak or inhibited prime mover synergistic dominance
the biochemical dysfunction in two articular partners that lead to abnormal joint movement (arthrokinematics) and proprioception arthrokinetic dysfunction
which muscles are used to depress the shoulder pectoralis major, pectoralis minor, latissimus dorsi
muscles used to elevate the shoulder trapezius, levator scapulae, serratus anterior
muscles used in retraction of the shoulder trapezius, rhomboids, latissimus dorsi
muscles used in the protraction of the shoulder levator scapulae, serratus anterior
muscles used in external rotation of the shoulder deltois, teres minor, intrafaspinatus
muscles used in internal rotation of the shoulder deltoid, pectoralis major, treses major, latissimus dorsi
muscles used in shoulder adduction infraspinatus, teres minor, teres major, latissimus dorsi, pectoralis major
muscles used in shoulder abduction deltois, trapezius, serratus anterior
muscles used in shoulder extension deltois, triceps brachii, latissimus dorsi
muscles used in shoulder flexion deltois, biceps brachii, pectoralis major
muscles used for elbow flexion biceps brachii, pronator teres, brachialis
muscles used for elbow extension triceps brachii
muscles used for hand supination biceps brachii
muscles used for hand pronation pronator trese
muscle used for wrist extension extensor carpi radialis brevis, extensor carpi radialis longus
muscles used for radial deviation abductor pollicis longus, extensor pollicis brevis, extensor carpi radialis longus, flexor carpi radialis
muscles used for ulnar deviation extensor carpi ulnaris
Created by: dinglespp