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small cells that reduce motor neuron discharge through a feedback circuit involving axon collaterals that excite interneurons. The system prevents rapid repeated firing of motor neurons. Renshaw cells
powerful modulators of motor neuron excitability. Recurrent inhibitory pathway
can both inhibit homologous motor neurons and disinhibit antagonists. Renshaw cell activation
("instability") Dynamic malalignment
The mechanical axis of the lower limb in the frontal plane is defined as a line drawn from the centre of the femoral head to the centre of the ankle joint.
individuals with upper -extremity movement impairments syndrome are usually characterized as having rounded shoulders and head forward posture
individuals with lower -extremity movement impairments syndrome are usually characterized as having excessive pronantion (flat feet), increased knee valgus (knocked knee) increased movement at the LPHC during movement
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a combination of pain in the neck and shoulder, numbness and tingling of the fingers, and a weak grip. thoracic outlet syndrome
is the area between the rib cage and collar bone. thoracic outlet
is an inflammatory process of the long head of the biceps tendon and is a common cause of shoulder pain due to its position and function. biceps tendinitis,
This muscle is a powerful supinator and flexor of the forearm. biceps
tendon passes down the bicipital groove in a fibrous sheath between the subscapularis and supraspinatus tendons. The long head of the biceps
biceps tendon shares the associated inflammatory process within the suprahumeral joint.
holds the biceps tendon long head within the bicipital groove. transverse humeral ligament
the most commonly injured joint ankle
posterior tendentious is better known as skin splints
concept where one or more synergists take over function for a prime mover is called Synergistic Dominance.
groups of muscles that contract together to accomplish the same body movement. synergistic muscles
Muscles having similar and mutually helpful functions or actions. synergistic muscles
Muscles that oppose each other are called antagonistic muscles.
these muscles must oppose the action of an agonist muscle so that movement can occur. Antagonist muscles
when the biceps brachii on the front of the upper arm contracts and shortens (agonist), the muscle must relax and lengthen (antagonist) so that the arm can flex. triceps brachii
The ability to sense stimuli arising within the body. Proprioception:
is where it attaches to the bone furthest from the center of the body. insertion
When the muscle contracts, it shortens and pulls on the bone. To return the bone to where it started, the reciprocal muscle on the other side of the bone must contract and shorten.
This "reciprocal" synergy between muscle groups is sometimes called the agonist/antagonistic system.
Eccentric contractions can also make you sorer than concentric contractions, probably because of the greater force generated and because of the simultaneous lengthening and shortening of the muscle.
The relationship between the length of a muscle and the contractile tension that it can exert. length-tension relationship
splits body vertically into left and right sections Sagittal plane:
splits body vertically into front & back sections Frontal plane:
splits body into top & bottom sections Transverse plane:
axis): perpendicular to the sagittal plane Transverse axis (mediolateral axis)
perpendicular to the frontal plane Anteroposterior axis:
axis: perpendicular to the transverse plane Longitudinal
anteriorly directed motion of head, trunk, upperarm, forearm & thigh - posteriorly directed motion of shank - decrease of joint angle - palmar / plantar / dorsi Flexion/extension:
Frontal Plane Motion - Abduction / adduction: moves away from/closer to body midline - Lateral flexion: trunk - - Radial / ulnar deviation: hand Frontal Plane Motion
Inversion / eversion: inward/outward rotation of the sole of the foot frontal plane motion
Elevation / depression: scapula (shoulder girdle) frontal plane motion
Transverse Plane Motion - Medial/lateral rotation: rotation toward/away from midline on the body - Left/right rotation: head, neck & trunk - frontal plane motion
- Horizontal adduction/abduction: arm frontal plane motion
Pronation/supination: forearm frontal plane motion
taking a limb away from the midline of the body Abduction
is moving a limb closer to the midline of the body. adduction
side lateral raises, side lunge and side bends example of what plane of motion. Frontal Plane
forward or backward movements and up/down movements relative to the body and or joint happen in what plane? The movements or motion associated with the saggital plane
are walking/running, seated row, bicep curl, chest press (plane) exercises which are associated with saggital plane
movements are rotational Transverse plane
swinging a bat, throwing, cable rotations golfing examples of exercises in the transverse plane
In muscular movement, the simultaneous relaxation of one muscle and the contraction of its antagonist. reciprocal inhibition
A process that inhibits the stretch reflex in antagonistic pairs of muscles. When one muscle contracts it sends inhibitory nerve impulses to its opposing muscle causing it to relax. reciprocal inhibition
the inward roll of the foot during normal motion and occurs as the outer edge of the heel strikes the ground and the foot rolls inward and flattens out. Pronation
occurs when the foot arch flattens out and stretches the muscles, tendons and ligaments underneath the foot. excessive pronation
refers to the outward roll of the foot during normal motion. Supination
places a large strain on the muscles and tendons that stabilize the ankle, and can lead to the ankle rolling completely over, resulting in an ankle sprain or total ligament rupture. excessive supination (outward rolling)
muscle contractions are generally isometric contractions that act to support the trunk, limit movement in a joint, or control balance." stabilizing
is responsible for stabilizing the individual spinal segments. transversus/multifidus,
consists primarily of the latissimus dorsi and the contralateral gluteus maximus The Posterior Oblique System (PS)
consists of a working relationship between the oblique abdominal muscles and the contralateral adductor musculature and the intervening anterior abdominal fascia Anterior Oblique System (AS)
consists of a working relationship between the gluteus medius, gluteus minimus and ipsilateral adductors. The Lateral System (LS
transfers forces from transverse plane movement to help with forward propulsion. Posterior Oblique Subsystem
is made up of the gluteus maximus, contralateral latissimus dorsi and the thoracolumbar fascia. Posterior Oblique Subsystem
The fiber arrangements of these muscles run perpendicular to the sacroiliac joint, in which subsystem Posterior Oblique Subsystem
in this subsystem contralateral gluteus maximus and latissimus dorsi muscles contact, they create a stabilizing force for the SI joint. Posterior Oblique Subsystem
subsystem that helps in rotational movements such as swinging a golf club, a baseball bat, or throwing a ball. Posterior Oblique Subsystem
in which subsystem improtant component of forward movement - when we walk and run, Posterior Oblique Subsystem
transfers forces from transverse plane movement to help with forward propulsion. Posterior Oblique Subsystem
subsystem is a group of muscles that help support lateral or side to side stability, The lateral subsystem
made up of the Quadratus Lumborum, Glute Medius, Tensor Fascia Latea, and the Adductor complex. The lateral subsystem
these muscles create an "X" shape from one side of your lower back, across your pelvis, and down the opposite leg. The lateral subsystem
his muscle grouping is taxed for its lateral stability during the backswing and downswing phases. The lateral subsystem
Provides a reciprocal force transmission longitudinally from the trunk to the ground. deep longitudinal subsystem
erector spinae, thoracolumbar fascia, sacrotuberous ligament, and biceps femoris make up the deep longitudinal subsystem
This spindle-shaped receptor is sensitive to skin stretch, and contributes to the kinesthetic sense of and control of finger position and movement Ruffini ending
are located in the deep layers of the skin, and register mechanical deformation within joints, more specifically angle change, with a specificity of up to 2 degrees, as well as continuous pressure states Ruffini endings
one of the four major types of mechanoreceptor. They are nerve endings in the skin, responsible for sensitivity to pain and pressure. Pacinian corpuscles
detect gross pressure changes and vibrations and are rapidly adapting (phasic) receptors Pacinian corpuscles
cause action potentials when the skin is rapidly indented but not when the pressure is steady, due to the layers of connective tissue that cover the nerve ending Pacinian corpuscles
is a proprioceptive sensory receptor organ that is located at the insertion of skeletal muscle fibers into the tendons of skeletal muscle. Golgi tendon organ
Agents that act as blood vessel dilators (vasodilators) and open vessels by relaxing their muscular walls. Vasodilators:
a thinfan-shaped ligament on each side of the body that is attached above to the posterior superior and posterior inferior iliac spines and to the sacrum and coccyx, sacrotuberous ligament
during squat: if the ankle is restricted what will move more hip
the lack of sagittal plane dorsiflexion at the ankle is due to overactive gastrocnemius and soleus and underactive anterior tibialis
LPHC compensates for the lack of ankle dorsiflexion by increasing forward flexion to alter the body's center of gravity to maintain balance
– The sensory system that responds to changes in head and body movement through space, and that coordinates movements of the eyes, head, and body. Receptor site is in the inner ear. Vestibular
The unconscious awareness of sensations coming from one’s joints, muscles, tendons, and ligaments; the “position sense”. Receptor sites are in the joints and the muscles. Proprioception -
The amount of tension or resistance to movement in a muscle. tonus
One of the two concavities above (superior) and below (inferior) the pedicle of a vertebra; the notches of two adjacent vertebrae (plus the intervertebral disc) form an intervertebral foramen. Incisura vertebralis
originating within the body (synonym: autogenous) (antonym: heterogenous) autogenic
Having a greater degree of tone or tension. hypertonic
ability
Created by: dinglespp