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Patho NURS 326

NMSU Patho NURS 328

Kidneys activate which vitamin? Vitamin D
Chronic Kidney Disease has a GFR lower than what? <60 GFR (mL/min/1.73m2) This means that more than 1/2 of the function of an adult kidney is lost.
Two electrolytes have a inverse (if one goes up, the other goes down) relationship. Which are they? Phosphorus and Calcium
Prerenal Failure Caused By: Hypovolemia, hemorrhage, dehydration, excessive loss of gastrointestinal tract fluids, excessive loss of fluid due to burn, decreased vascular filling, anaphylactic shock, septic shock, heart failure and cardiogenic shock, NSAIDS
Kidneys should process out which electrolytes? Sodium,phosphorus,potassium, magnesium
Intrinsic or Intrarenal Failure Caused By: Acute tubular necrosis, prolonged renal ischemia, exposure to nephrotoxic drugs, heavy metals, and organic solvents, intratubular obstruction resulting from hemoglobinuria, myoglobinuria, myeloma light chains, or uric acid casts, acute renal disease
Postrenal Failure Caused By: Bilateral urethral obstruction and bladder outlet obstruction
pH Levels: pH (a measure of hydrogen ion concentration. It represents the acidity or alkalinity of the blood) normal: 7.35 - 7.45, Absolute normal: 7.40, <7.40 Acid (the greater the hydrogen ion concentration), >7.40 Base (the lesser the hydrogen ion concentration)
Respiratory Component Levels: PCO2 (the partial pressure of carbon dioxide dissolved in blood) normal: 35 - 45, >45 Acid, <35 Base CO2 is an ACID
Metabolic Component Levels: HCO3 (the amount of bicarbonate present in blood) normal: 22-26, < 22 Acid, > 26 Base HCO3 is a BASE The kidneys control this by releasing or retaining bicarbonate.
PO2 Levels: 80 - 100 mmHg or High Altitude 75 - 85 mmHg (Partial Pressure of Oxygen) Age also affects levels. Every year after 60 decreases PO2 drops by 1mmHg from the lowest value. IE: a 70 y.o man in a low altitude has a PO2 of 70, and considered normal.
ABGs are:
Hypothalmus produces what hormones? (HOMEOSTASIS CONTROL) Releasing and inhibiting hormones: Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH), Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GmRH), Somatostatin (Inhibits GH and TSH)
Created by: kx2ax3



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