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CIT232 Web Serv 4-6

CIT232 Web Server Design Key Terms Chapters 4 - 6

address resolution The process of converting a computer name to a numeric IP address.
alias An alternate name, as for a computer or mailbox.
Berkeley Internet Name Domain (BIND) The software used for DNS in Linux and other non-Windows servers.
caching server A server that is not authoritative for any zone. Instead, it handles queries by asking other servers for information.
canonical name A host’s official name, the first hostname listed for the computer’s IP address in the hostname database.
Dynamic Domain Name Service (DDNS) A service that allows DNS to be automatically updated when the IP address of a workstation changes or a new workstation is added to the network. Only Windows 2000, Windows XP, and Windows 2003 support DDNS.
forward lookup A zone that contains entries that map names to IP addresses.
forwarding servers Servers that process requests that DNS servers cannot resolve locally. A forwarding server is not really a separate type of server, but a caching server used in a particular way. Also called a forwarder.
host An individual computer on a network.
host name A name that refers to a computer; more specifically, a service running on a computer. For example, ftp.technowidgets.com, www.technowidgets.com, and www.productswithpizazz.com are all host names that could exist on the same computer.
name resolution Taking a common name of a network resource—a Web server, for instance—and converting it into a corresponding IP address. The name can be in the form of a DNS host name, such as www.technowidgets.com, or, in Windows, a computer name such as Web1.
name resolver A DNS client. Technically, a name resolver is the client software component that uses the services of one or more name servers.
name server An application that supports name-to-address and address-to-name translation. Also known as a DNS server.
namespace A common grouping of related names such as hosts within a LAN.
reverse lookup A zone that contains entries that map IP addresses to names.
reverse (or reversing) proxy server A server designed to isolate your Web server environment from the Internet. Instead of your DNS pointing to your Web server’s IP address, it points to the IP address of your proxy server.
root server A special type of server that identifies the top-level domains on the Internet.
secondary server A server that receives its authority and database from the primary server. The secondary server provides fault tolerance, load distribution, and easier remote name resolution for the primary DNS server.
second-level domain A level that identifies a particular entity within a top-level domain. The second-level domain name includes the top-level domain.
Start of Authority (SOA) A type of resource record used by DNS where every domain name has an SOA record in its database that indicates basic properties of the domain and its zone.
subdomain Second-level domains that are divided into further domain levels, as in the URL www.arda.jones.name.
top-level domain (TLD) Identifies the most general portion of the domain name. It is the “end” portion of the domain name, as in com, edu, and org.
Active Directory (AD) In Windows, AD allows users a single logon for the whole network. It can be used to organize domains.
authentication The process of determining a user’s true identity.
daemon A term used in Linux to specify a program (more specifically, a process) that runs in the background.
domain In Windows, a logical grouping of computers that administrators use to organize common resource needs.
domain account In Windows, a user account on a server that is valid throughout the domain, which is a logical grouping of computers.
domain local group A group that has members from the same domain. You can use domain local groups to assign permissions to resources in the same domain.
global group A group that has members from the same domain. You can use global groups to assign permissions to resources in any domain, however.
group A collection of users with common access needs. You put users in groups and then assign access to groups.
group ID (GID) A unique number, between 0 an 32767, identifying a set of users in Linux.
group policy In Active Directory, a policy that enforces network policies.
local account In Windows, a user account that exists only on a single computer.
local area network (LAN) A group of connected computers along with the devices and media that connect them.
NT LanManager (NTLM) An authentication protocol used by Windows NT, Windows 95, and Windows 98.
NTFS A high-performance file system for Windows that supports access control and auditing of files and folders.
roaming profile A profile that lets you access a variety of information about the user, such as desktop settings, Windows Explorer folder options, and Internet Explorer favorites, from other computers on the LAN.
universal group A group that can have members from any domain. You can use universal groups to assign permissions to resources in any domain.
user ID (UID) A number assigned to users in Linux. A UID with a value less than 100 is intended for special system users. In Red Hat Linux, when you add a user, the UID starts at 500.
useradd A Linux utility to add users.
Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) The formatting language that browsers use to display text and graphics.
Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) A protocol that defines how information is passed between the browser and the Web server.
ISAPI filters Applications that process HTTP requests. For example, Microsoft Exchange installs an ISAPI filter to process Web e-mail.
Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP) A protocol used in News servers to create threaded discussions in a newsgroup.
newsgroup A group that shares an interest in information on a specific topic, such as comp.os.linux.security, a newsgroup devoted to Linux security issues, or alt.volkswagen.beetle, a newsgroup for Volkswagen Beetle owners and fans.
persistent connections Allows the browser to receive multiple files in one TCP connection.
root The physical location on the Web server where you store your Web pages.
stateless When a protocol is stateless (as is HTTP, for example), each Web page sent to the user is independent of every other Web page that the server sends.
Created by: Leisac