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ISTM Exam 2

Book Notes

Computer network 2 or more computers connected together to communicate and share resources
Shared resources computer files, folders, software, and peripheral hardware (scanners, printers, webcams)
The advantages of a computer network over a stand-alone system are _______ so significant that businesses CANNOT compete effectively in the marketplace w/out a network of some kind
Every device connected to a network node
All networks require 4 Basic Components Network Interface Controller (NIC) Protocol (language) Physical Cable System Hub
What is Network Interface Controller? NIC Plugged into a slot on the motherboard inside so it can interface or communicate with other computers
What is the most common NIC? Ethernet card: They provide 48-bit address called a MAC (media access control) addresses, meaning no 2 Ethernet cards have the same address therefore: each computer on a network can be identified
Once an ethernet is installed _______ a standard language (protocol) must in order for the connected computers to communicate
Network Protocol provides a common language and rules for communication it is a convention or standard that controls or allows communication and data transfer between 2 computers
What are Network Protocols? are the rules that govern network communication they are governed by hardware, software, or both
Most commonly used network cable is: Ethernet Cable
What is an Ethernet Cable? specialized wires with adaptors that plug into the NIC
The most common type of cable is called twisted pair
Twisted pair a specialized wire that cancels out electromagnetic interference from other electronic devices and increases reliability
Networks can be connected together wirelessly without cables and NICs, but this method ______ is generally used for smaller networks
Most common Hub is Ethernet Hub
Hub a central location of the computer network that serves as a traffic cop for network connection and communication ensures that computer traffic collisions are eliminated
What is plugged into a Hub? Cables from network computers and other devices
What happens once the 4 basic network elements are in place and operational? Computers and peripherals can begin to communicate and share data
Intranet business' private web-based network
Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) checks to see that the receiving computer accepts all of the packets that make up the spreadsheet that the packets are in the correct order Guarantees the reliability of the computer file received by the network's end user
User Datagram Protocol (UDP) simply sends the entire file at once in a streaming fashion much faster than TCP/IP does not guarantee a file's reliability (used for videos)
Operating System software that administers the hardware and software of a computer, allowing it to work
OS = Platform; performs important jobs like controlling memory, input and output devices, and managing computer files
Network Operating System (NOS) software that controls an entire network responsible for network traffic control, administering packets, file management, administering certain functions like backup, and security
What happens when a new device is attached to a network? The NOS is able to recognize it and install it as part of the network
NOS supports _____ multiprocessing which allows several processes to occur at one time
Nos provides security by requiring its users to preregister with a network administrator before being allowed access to any client computers
Network administrator person(s) responsible for smooth network operations, network performance, and implementation of new nodes or new networks
Once users are registered with the network _____ they must provide passwords for logging in that authenticate their identity and control access to certain areas of the network
The businesses's corporate hierarchy often determines network access (who can see what)
Topology mapping of a physical network and logical interconnections between nodes; ( a way a network is arranged and laid out)
Bus topology or linear bus, a network topology where each of a network's nodes is connected to a common linear backbone that has two endpoints
Data is transmitted between the 2 endpoints and the nodes are connected to the backbone
Advantage and disadvantage of bus topology advantage: all nodes can receive data virtually simultaneously disadvantage: if the backbone is down all nodes on the backbone are down as well
Star Topology Named for the star-shape created by nodes that radiate around a central node in a spoke-like fashion MOST COMMON Center of the star is the hub that attaches to the nodes with spokes
What is a disadvantage of star topology if the central hub fails, every node attached to the hub will also fail
Ring topology shaped like a ring each computer is connected to 2 other computers in the network with the first and last computers being connected to each other -data is transmitted between computers in a circular manner -LEAST USED
What is an advantage of ring topology? if the traffic cannot flow. in one direction, then it can try to flow in the other direction around the ring makes it more robust, no hub through which all the traffic flows
Local Area Network LAN a computer network that is small, typically in a single building or small as a single room serves smaller businesses and often serve smaller parts of a large business (accounting department or sales division)
Campus Area Network CAN computer network that connects two or more LANs that are located on a campus limited in size to the specific size of the campus it serves A CAN may connect an English Department's LAN to a Math Department's LAN, allowing them to share resources
Metropolitan Area Network MAN a computer network that connects 2 or more LANs or CANs together but within the boundaries of a city Ex: a bank with different branch locations throughout a metropolitan area that are all connected
Wide Area Networks WAN encompasses a wide general area and connect LANs, CANs, and MANs together rely on telephone company's transmission facilities to connect the smaller networks together
Who relies on WANs? many large organizations rely on WANs to centralize data and info in a main office and then have the capability to disseminate that info. nationwide or worldwide Airlines rely on WANs to provide ticketing agents w/ access to all flight info.
Dumb terminals a computer whose sole purpose is to connect the network and nothing else
Peer-to-Peer Network P2P connects computers to one another w/out the use of a server it is a group of clients that act as their own individual servers and share their resources common for sharing audio and video
Internet interconnection of public, private, commercial, industrial, and government networks world's largest network connects 1,000s of LANs, CANs, MANs, and WANs
What is primary network threat? Unwanted user
Passwords secret words or combination of keyboard characters typed in by a user to authenticate one's identity for joining a computer network
Password policies should outline the longevity of a password and require a network user to change it on a regular basis for security reasons
What are the advantages of having a "strong password" more difficult to breach with constantly changing passwords
What are the disadvantages of having a "strong password" user may find it inconvienent and write password in a location where it can be found
What is an advantage in restricting web browsing? ensures that their employees will not visit malicious or inappropriate websites that may compromise network security or create liability
Website content is ____ cached or stored on user's computer, may contain bad content and have ties with business making them liable
Email/Instant Messaging must be trained and educated on proper usage must be used for business only not personal use
Permissions restrict or grant access to specific files and folders on a computer network to a user or group of users
Firewalls specialized hardware and software that ensures only authorized personnel can access and use an organizations intranet
Employees who choose to telecommute _____ are able to log on to their businesses' computer networks and access it's intranet from home by getting past the company's firewall
What happened in 1969 at UCLA? ARPANET (Advanced Research Project Agency Network) was born
What did Tim Berners-Lee invent? HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) at ERN (European Nuclear Research)
HTML language that would facilitate the capability to move information through the Internet called HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol)
Once HTML and HTTP were accomplished what happened? World Wide Web (WWW) was born
HTML's language is standard works on any kind of computer
HTTP was developed to? transfer information in a standard fashion that all computers on the internet could receive
The internet is a network called client/server model
Server/host a computer that stores webpages on a network
The computer can be both a client and a sever at the same time
The WWW is the most dominant dynamic resource on the planet with infinite implications on global scale
WWW growing ____ at an incredible rate w/ millions of new users monthly
Internet Protocol Address IP serves two main functions: network interface identification and location addressing.
Uniform Resource Locators URLs a location or address identifying where documents can be found on the internet
Http refers to the standard protocol or rules exchanging files from a server to a client on the internet
Website collection of webpages on a server that exists on the Web that can be requested by a client and displayed with a browser
HTML allows the web page to display text, images, videos, and more
Hyperlink link clickable navigation element (typically text) which resides in a webpage can access the address and document name from another computer on the Web
Web developers/ web masters people that produce and post a website
Aspects of a good website content, interactivity, design
Content the most important aspect of any website w/out reliable and original content it is inadequate many businesses employ full-time content managers to avoid that problem
Interactivity engages the user, makes it memorable needs to be interesting enough for a visit and a return provides a sense of participation
Design extensive website usability studies have shown that user loses confidence in a business by seeing only the poorly designed homepages and rendered graphics a website can be a customer's initial impression of a business
Browsers application software that provides an interface that allows a user to display and interact with text, images, and other information located on the WWW
When you request a webpage from a different computer or server that web page is visiting your computer and the browser translates and organizes that information so it is readable for a human being
Bookmarks favorites, a browser will catalog frequently visited websites so the user doesn't have to remember the page URL
Caching refers to when the browser stores copies of previously viewed web pages that the user has already accessed that allows it to find them quickly without having to make another request to the originating server
Cookies text files that are used for tracking and maintaining specific information about users, such as site preferences, etc.
Graphic Files GIF JPEG web browsers display images with joint photographic expert group and graphics interchange format file formats
Javascript client-side (user) programs that allow the browsers to run small applications, like clocks and calendars
Security certain web browsers have different levels of security; Firefox is an independent browser and therefore does not suffer from the same exposure; major concern when choosing a browser
Popup Blockers separate browser windows that are programmed by website designers to open extra browser windows without user interaction includes ads good browser should have settings to disallow popups
Usability good browser should be able to display and render any website as the web designer intended, should have a robust set of tools that the user can utilize to easily modify personal browser settings
Connectivity when one computer can connect to one or many other computers and share information and resources
Internet Service Provider ISP a business or organization that provides people with a way to access the Internet and WWW use dial-up and digital subscriber line (DSL)
Broadband a high data-transmission rate internet connection
What are popular consumer broadband technologies? DSL and Cable modems typically capable of transmitting faster than a dial-up Modem
Web hosting a common kind of hosting run Internet servers to serve content like webpages, to the Internet, or clients
ISPs "rent" or host space to website owners and offer domain name registration so they could be found on the Internet by clients or users usually offer a mail hosting and a variety of other services
Search engines a website that lets a user type in specific keywords or phrases and then returns a list of hits (hyperlinks) that best match the search Google
Metasearch engines look and work like keyword searches but return the results of many search engines at once and eliminate duplicates
E-commerce relies on internet to do business
Business-to-Business B2B refers to business distributing, buying, selling, advertising, and marketing goods or services over the Web to other businesses
Business-to-Consumer B2C can be described as when commercial organizations sell to consumers over the Web
Consumer-to-Consumer C2C involves e-commerce between individuals and is typically facilitated by a third party ebay
Market research who is your customer who are your competitors what's your product is there demand for your product
Information technology Competencies IT modern web-authoring software provides easy to construct a website and post it on the WWW but e-commerce requires many more considerations when it comes to website design and must be on the cutting edge of technology
Streamlined business process e-commerce demands that a business investigates how it does business on the web; imperative to have a complete understanding of the products and services offered and how they will be delivered in the marketplace
Agility update storefronts, allow for website reengineering and even an entire business facelift that is for faster than conventional businesses
Browser hijacking when the browser's settings are modified by malware
Malware software designed to damage a computer's system without the owner's knowledge
Viruses malicious computer program that can copy itself and infect a computer, typically without the user being aware of it spread extremely quick throughout the internet
Worms a virus in that it spreads quickly and is extremely harmful but it does not need to attach itself to an existing program copy themsekves harm networks
Trojan horse harmless or interesting looking program that, when executed, unleashes harmful viruses into a user's system
Spyware software that installs itself on a user's system without permission and clears personal data and information about the user attempts to steal credit card numbers ss number, passwords
Adware software that routinely displays advertising to a computer system after the software is installed, usually without the user's consent pop-up
Email store and forward system of composing, sending, storing, and receiving messages over electronic communication systems
Phising an email that looks like it is from a legitimate bank when in reality it is a ruse that attempts to fool the user into voluntarily typing their SSN, bank passwords and pin
Spam unwanted mail
Voice Over Internet Protocl VOIP routing of voice conversations, or typically, phone calls over the Internet skype
Intranet private version of the Internet, one that is confined within an organization key is privacy uses browsers and email helps reduce costs
Firewalls specialized hardware and software working together that ensures only authorized personnel within an org. can use the intranet
Access control some places like military installations and power plants need to restrict certain people from entering certain areas; automatically detect authorized and non-authorized individuals
Bricking a consumer electronic device that has been damaged beyond repair, making it utterly unusable, often because of damaged firmware
Web development platforms (WDP) have been around since the late 1990s and gained traction as technology improved and Internet sped up,
Tim Berners-Lee invented HyperText Markup Language in 1990
HTML standard, platform-neutral language that all computers could read
web server dedicated computer connected to the Internet that accepts HTTP requests from internet users and fulfills the request by sending HTML documents, or web pages via HTTP
What is a common minsomer You don't visit a website, it visits you
Web servers sends web pages to the client
Cache data that was duplicated from one data on another computer (web page)
History all of the content a client looked at on the web resides on the client's computer
Businesses will often monitor and filter websites that their employees can see and do not let them "surf" the web because of the liability "cache" can create
HTML principal programming language resolved and rendered by browsers to display web pages
Hypertext the text on the browser that leads to the user to related info.
markup language refers to the computer programming language that gives browsers the instructions to display text, images, other elements .htm or .html
HTML main language of the WWW, others exist
Javascript is a programming language that is considered a client-side language in reference to websites only work on "client side"
Adobe Flash integrate video on a browser, add animations... stuff for games
Static websites rarely, if ever, change their content and display information the same way to all users brochure websites or classic websites
Dynamic websites styles actually generate a web page directly from the server depending on the context of the user facebook
Personal websites webpages created by an individual that contain content of a personal nature
Commercial websites collection of webpages that support a business enterprise for the purpose of e-commerce or as a brochure type website to incent a user to employ the business
Governmental websites for informational purposes that support their citizens
Intranet websites within a company that are used to support its employees and guarded by firewalls to authenticate its users
blog web blog owner is called a blogger write about stuff
content website dispense orginial content and are often supported by advertising
corporate website distribute info. about a business to provide background info. about their goods and services for public consumption
Corporate intranet sites provide info to their employees and use authentication and firewalls to keep their info. private
commerce website ecommerce site sole purpose is to sell goods and services online
search engine webstite offers general info and is intended as an entryway for other websites type in keywords about the subject you are looking for
news website similar to gov website, but devoted to providing news and have an enormous impact on the distribution of printed newspapers by reducing prints market share
Microsoft Access is an extremely powerful database application program with powerful interface and programming language
Chrome and Firefox are set up simply to render and resolve HTML on computer's monitor
Web browser application software is considered a thin client
Thin client client computer or client software like a web browser in client/server network that depends on the server for computer processing that in turn serves up the info to the client
Fat clients have greater functionality than thin clients; are typically more expensive relative to web browsers than are thin clients
Server-side processing website online software has to be a dynamic website that generates a processes web pages directly from the server
Online advertising a form of sponsorship that uses WWW for delivering business-marketing messages to catch the attention of its customers
Search engine results offer a user results that are technically called SERPs the listing of hits or web page hyperlinks, returned by a search engine in response to keyword query google
Native advertising attempts to dupe a user into believing they are clicking on a legitimate news story and when in fact they are clicking on an add
Social network focused on social network websites like facebook social media
banner ads online ads with JPEGS or GIFs embedded into them that attract traffic to a website by linking to the website of the advertiser
Cost per click when an online advertiser only pays the website owner if a viewer clicks on their ad
Cost per thousand impressions cost for every thousand impressions or hits CPM M=1,000
Cost per action when the website publisher only charges the advertiser when a specific action is completed by the viewer like completely filling out an outline form or purchasing a product
Created by: bella_grace11
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