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ENG 2340 Exam 2

Texas State / World Literature 1600+ / Spring '10 / Smith

QuestionAnswer
INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION BEGAN IN ENGLAND, SPREAD THROUGH EUROPE. RUSSIA/E. EUROPE SLOW. TECH ADVANCES - STEAL, STEAM, NEW FUELS. FACTORIES & MASS PRODUCTION.
MORE CONTEMPORARY REVOLUTIONS AGRICULTURE. DEMOCRACY. CITY GROWTH. DECLINE OF LAND AS MAIN WEALTH SOURCE
CAPITALISM REPLACED FEUDALISM AS MAIN EURO ECO SYST. BEGAN AS MERCANTILISM. TWO NEW REALMS: POLITICAL & ECONOMIC GOVERNANCE. SIGNIFICANT IMPROVEMENT IN GENERAL STANDARD OF LIVING.
ADAM SMITH WROTE WEALTH OF NATIONS. "INVISIBLE HAND OF THE MARKET." PRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION SHOULD BE LEFT TO MARKET FORCES, NOT CONTROLLED. GOV. POWERS OVER ECO MATTERS SHOULD BE LTD. COMPANIES SHOULD BE EXPOSED TO COMPETITION, WAGES DETERMINED BY SUPPLY/DEMAND
URBAN PROBLEMS OF CAPITALISM DANGEROUS, LONG FACTORY SHIFTS. WORKING DAY FROM 10 HRS --> 12/14/18 HRS. MARX: WORKERS SHARED" ALL THE MISERIES OF THE SLAVE, W/O THE SECURITY." OFTEN DESTROYED TRAD. FAM VALUES & SOCIAL BONDS.CHILD LABOR, CRIME, ALCOHOLISM, PROSTITUTION
KARL MARX ENGLES CO WRITER/COLLABORATOR. DAS KAPITAL. LIVED IN POVERTY. LOVED FAMILY. DIES HEARTBROKEN AFTER DEATHS OF WIFE/ELDEST DAUGHTER, 1884. "BEFORE ALL ELSE, A REVOLUTIONIST."
MARXIST PHILOSOPHY MAN 1ST AN ECONOMIC CREATURE, HUMANS = PRODUCERS. ECO CONDITIONS DETERMINE SOC/POL/INT LIFE. VALES NOT UNIVERSALLY VALID, BORN FROM ECO FACTS (PROSPERITY/DESTITUTION). "SOCIAL BEING DETERMINES CONSCIOUSNESS" HISTORY PROGRESSING -- > COMMUNISM.
COMMUNIST MANIFESTO 1848 SIMPLIFIED VERSION MARXIST THOUGHT, PUBLISHED DUR EURO REVOLT (FRA/GER/HUN). URBAN/RURAL POOR ROSE UP ACROSS CONTINENT. PPL THOUGHT WORKING CLASS REVOLUTION NEAR. "ONLY A SUCCESSFUL WORKING CLASS REV. CAN FREEE PPL FROM TYRANNY" BESTSELLER PRACTICAL DOC
CLASS STRUGGLES ALL OF HUMAN HISTORY A PRODUCT OF THIS. *STARK OPPOSITION: PROLETARIOT & BOURGEOSIE. B < P. RELATIONSHIP IMMORAL/EXPLOITIVE. UNSUSTAINABLE, B/C P. HAVE #S ON THEIR SIDE.
BURGEOISIE V. PROLETARIOT B- OWNERS/PROFESSIONAS/MANUFACTURERS P- WAGE WORKERS ENGAGED IN INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION. ESSENTIALLY, OWNERS V. WORKERS, OLD MONEY V. NEW MONEY
HOW SHOULD WORKRS OVERCOME PRODUCTION "ESTRANGEMENT?" CAPITALISM SEPARATED WORKERS FROM PRODUCTION. "ESTRANGEMENT" ONLY SOLVED BY REVOLUTION. WRKRS SHOULD T/O MODERN INDUSTRY...WRKRS WILL ABOLISH PRIVATE OWNERSHIP OF MEANS OF PRODUCTION/PROFIT/MARKET/$$$. CAP SUCCESS PRODUCES ALWAYS GROWING PROLETARIOT
"CAPITALISM ESSENTIAL TO HUMAN HISTORY" ...SAID MARX. DESTRUCTION OF CAPITALISM BY THE WORKING CLASS WILL SEGWAY TO RISE OF SOCIALIST STATE.
ALIENATION OF LABOR EXAMPLE WORKERS MAKE GLOVE FOR A WAGE...FACTORY OWNER OWNS MEANS OF PRODUCTION...OWNER POCKETS PROFIT, BUT DOESN'T MAKE GLOVE...THUS, WORKER IS ESTRANGED FROM PRODUCT.
MARX'S PROBLEMS WITH CAPITALISM "ALL THAT IS HOLY IS PROFANED" CAPITALISM IS TIED TO IMPERIALISM. CAPITALISM DESTROYED TRADITIONS. SOCIAL BONDS/NORMS DON'T EXIST, FAM VALUES DESTROYED. WRKRS = COMMODITY TO BE BOUGHT/SOLD. POTENTIALLY CREATIVE PPL = OBJECTS.
LONDON 428 BLAKE. NOT A MARXIST. SONGS OF EXPERIENCE. INDUSTRIAL REV EFFECTS: LONDONERS' SUFFERING. CAPITALISM CRITIQUE. STREETS OF LONDON "PRIVATELY OWNED"...LEASED/BOUGHT/RENTED. ALL PPL, EVEN RICH, AFFECTED. PROSTITUTION CRITIQUE.
CHIMNEY SWEEPER / SONG OF INNOCENCE 425 CHILD LABOR, INDENTURED SERVANTS, CHILDREN SCARED. TAUGHT TO BE GOOD & DO DUTY; INTERNALIZED IDEOLOGY OF OPPRESSORS. CHILDREN NOT IGNORANT OF REALITY, BUT FIND SOLACE IN HEAVEN'S PROMISE (AN INNOCENT WAY OF THINKING)
CHIMNEY SWEEPER / SONG OF EXPERIENCE 429 SPEAKER UNDERSTANDS WHAT HAPPENED TO HIM. BLAKE DISLIKED TRAD. RELIGIOUS AUTHORITY, "B/C IT WAS HYPOCRITICAL & USED TO JUSTIFY CHILD LABOR." MARX IDEA RE: RELIGION: "THE OPIATE OF THE MASSES." A HEAVEN OF OUR MISERY. "I AM HAPPY, & DANCE & SING." REALLY?
ALIENATED LABOR Capitalism has separated workers from what they produce. ESTRANGEMENT CAN ONLY BE SOLVED BY REVOLUTION. EVENTUALLY, WRKRS WILL ABOLISH PRIVATE OWNERSHIP. CAPITALISM SUCCESS PRODUCES ALWAYS GROWING PROLETARIAT. LEADS TO RISE OF SOCIALIST STATE.
MARX: WHAT WAS THE VALUE OF CAPITALISM? "capitalism is essential TO HUMAN HISTORY."
"ALL THAT IS SOLID MELTS INTO AIR" WHO/MEANING? MARX: CAPITALISM TIED TO IMPERIALISM. CAPITALISM HAS DESTROYED TRADITIONS. SOCIAL BONDS NO LONGER EXIST, FAMILY VALUES DESTROYED. "ALL THAT IS HOLY IS PROFANED." WORKERS ARE ANOTHER COMMODITY TO BE BOUGHT/SOLD. POTENTIALLY CREATIVE PPL BECOME OBJECTS
WHAT LANGUAGE DID TAGORE WRITE IN? SIGNIFICANCE? BENGALI. LANGUAGE OF THE PPL. THE VERNACULAR.
POSSIBLE REASONS CHANDRA CONFESSED TO RADHA MURDER 1) OBEY HER HUSBAND, 2) ILLUSTRATE HER OWN COURAGE, 3) SHE LOVES HER HUSBAND
"PUNISHMENT" AN IMPLICIT CRITIQUE OF BRIT JUSTICE SYSTEM - HOW? REMOVED FROM THE ACTUAL EVENT. DOES NOT DELIVER TRUTH.
IRELAND/EASTER 1916 IRISH NATIONALISTS V. BRITISH RULE. UPRISING TOOK YEATS BY SURPRISE.
"WHEN YOU ARE OLD" - WHO WAS THIS WRITTEN BY/FOR? MAIN THEMES? YEATS/ MAUD GONNE/AGE IS A THREAT TO LOVE, SAD MEMORIES OF PHYSICAL LOVE, ART REPLACES PASSION IN OLD AGE, LOVE MUST GO TO A HIGHER PLANE, SENDING SOULS OUT TO MEET
"LEDA AND THE SWAN" WHAT DOES YEATS DEPICT? BEG. CLASSICAL ERA, VIOLENCE BEGETS VIOLENCE, LEDA'S RAPE LEADS TO HELEN'S BIRTH, TROJAN WAR, LANGUAGE SHOWS VIOLENCE OF ACTION. UNEASY VIEW OF MYSTICAL POWER
"AMONG SCHOOL CHILDREN" / YEATS / WHAT CONCEPT IS EXPLORED? CARTESIAN DUALISM. Contrast between speaker and children, But age is coming for them, too The prices paid to give life and to live life Is life worth the price? “The body is not bruised to pleasure soul”? What is Yeats saying about mind and body?
WHY WAS THERE A GROWTH OF ANTI-FOREIGN SENTIMENT IN CHINA IN THE EARLY 20TH C.? BRITISH BALANCE OF TRADE DEFICIT LED THEM TO IMPORT OPIUM TO CHINA, CAUSING MASSIVE SOCIAL UNREST/BLOODY OPIUM WARS.
CONFUCIANISM Confucianism – humans can improve themselves through education and moral reform Socially, politically, and religiously important Stresses obedience, politeness, social conventions, and reverence for past An all-encompassing lifestyle
"DIARY OF A MADMAN" - WHAT IS LU XUN DOING? HOW DOES HE ACCOMPLISH HIS GOALS? Lu attacks hypocrisy and false politeness
WHAT IS A "NOBLE SAVAGE?" Noble savage – patronizing form of dehumanization
IS ACHEBE FOR OR AGAINST THE "NOBLE SAVAGE" IDEA? WHY/WHY NOT? against. INSTEAD OF PORTRAYING Africans as innocent/uncorrupted/PURE/NATURAL natives, HE CREATED ROUNDED CHARACTERS, WITH REAL HUMAN EMOTIONS AND FLAWS.
"LEDA AND THE SWAN" - DOES YEATS GLORIFY RAPE? IS THE SCENE ROMANITCIZED IN W. ART? DOES IT SHOW LEDA'S PERSPECTIVE? DOES LEDA BECOME DIVINE?
ACHEBE
YEATS
TAGORE
MARX
BLAKE
OKONKWO CLINGS TO PRIDE, & WARLIKE AGRESSION. UNWILLING TO CHANGE. PASSIONATE, PHYSICALLY STRONG, COURAGEOUS, HARD WORKER. HUMILIATED BY DAD/UNOKA. SON - NWOYE. DISLIKES SIGNS OF WEAKNESS/FEMINITY, LEADS-UNBALANCE, SETS HIM APART FROM CLAN MEMBERS & EARTH GODDESS
Created by: goldmeg89