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Black History

QuestionAnswer
First black actor to win an oscar award for his role in the 1963 film "Lillies of the Field. Sidney Potier
Best known for his portrayal of a black doctor who plans to marry a white woman in "Guess Who's Coming to Dinner?", a movie that was the first to deal with such a social situation, starring Katherine Hepburn and Spencer Tracy. Sidney Potier
Became the first black US Secretary of State in 2001 Colin Powell
Formerly the Chairman of the US Joint Chiefs of Staff, the highest military post in the US Colin Powell
Four-Star General played a leading role in the Desert Storm operations in the Perisan Gulf Colin Powell
In 2005 she was sworn in as the US Secretary of State, following Colin Powell. Condoleeza Rice
Was appointed in 2001 to be the National Security Advisor by President George W. Bush. Condoleeza Rice
Before taking the high ranking government position of Nation Security Advisor, she was a professor of political science at Stanford University. Condoleeza Rice
Started college at the age of 15 at the University of Denver and has her Masters' Degree from the University of Notre Dame Condoleeza Rice
Birth name of Cassius Clay Muhammad Ali
Won the gold medal in the 1960 Olympics in Rome for boxing Muhammad Ali
In 1964 he became the heavyweight champion by knocking out rival Sonny Liston. Muhammad Ali
In 1967 he refused, on religious grounds, to register to enter the armed forces and fight in Vietnam, and so he lost his title as heavyweight champion. He later regained it after beating both Joe Fraizer and George Foreman. Muhammad Ali
Lit the Olympic Torch for the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta Georgia. Muhammad Ali
Named "Sportsman of the Century" by Sports Illustrated. Muhammad Ali
Currently suffers from Parkinson's disease and has raised over $45 million for his Parkinson Center. Muhammad Ali
A well-respected tennis player, he was the first black winner of a major men's singles championship, the US Open, in 1968. Arthur Ashe
Won both the Davis Cup and Wimbledon singles against the #1 player, Jimmy Connors. Arthur Ashe
An author, writing 'A Hard Road to Glory', about the history of African Americans in sports. Arthur Ashe
Built the first clock in the United States after only one look at a pocket watch, and it kept perfect time for over 40 years. Benjamin Banneker
Was an astronomer and correctly predicted the 1789 solar eclipse. Benjamin Banneker
President Washington appointed him to the team to plan the layout for the capital city in Washington DC. Benjamin Banneker
He was very successful because he had a photographic memory. Benjamin Banneker
In 1792 he published an almanac that included poems and weather information. Benjamin Banneker
Became the first African American astronaut in space. Guion Bluford
In 1983 he blasted off into outer space on the space shuttle "Challenger". This was the first mission with both a night launch and landing, and it lasted six days. The crew was launching a weather satellite. Guion Bluford
He was trained to fly in the Air Force and flew combat missions in Vietnam. Guion Bluford
Before his retirement, he logged over 688 hours in space. Guion Bluford
Developed over 300 products from peanuts including coffee, butter, adhesives, shampoo, face powder, ink, and vinegar. George Washington Carver
Taught southern farmers that growing crops other than cotton could help improve their farm land. George Washington Carver
Taught at Tuskegee University in Alabama. George Washington Carver
Was offered jobs from Henry Ford and Thomas Edison, but he chose to stay at Tuskegee and help improve the lives of black farmers. George Washington Carver
In 1909, he became the first person ever to reach the North Pole, and promptly placed an American flag there to mark the accomplishment. Matthew Henson
He and Robert Peary travelled by dog sled with Eskimo guides. He was the best dog sled driver, so he led the team while Perry moved more slowly due to frostbite on his toes. Matthew Henson
Was awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor in 1944. Matthew Henson
Became the first black Supreme Court Justice in 1967 after being appointed by President Lyndon Johnson. Thurgood Marshall
Best known for being a lawyer for the NAACP in the Brown vs. Board of Ed court case that desegrated schools. Linda Brown was not allowed to attend the all white school. He argued that segregated schools were against the law, and won. Thurgood Marshall
Was told at the age of 4 that she would never walk again, but in 1960 won 3 gold medals in the Olympics in Rome. Wilma Rudolph
Titled the world's fastest woman after winning 3 gold medals in the 1960 Olympics in Rome Wilma Rudolph
Set the world record of 22.9 seconds for the 200 meter race. Wilma Rudolph
Became a teacher and coach after winning gold medals in the 1960 olympics and being named the world's fastest woman. Wilma Rudolph
Called "The Moses of her people" Harriet Tubman
Helped to bring over 300 slaves to freedom using the Underground Railroad. Harriet Tubman
Helped slaves escape by traveling from one safe place to another until they reached freedom in the north. Harriet Tubman
Led her own parents to freedom. Harriet Tubman
Made 19 rescue trips for slaves and was never caught. Harriet Tubman
During the Civil War, she served the Union Army as a nurse and spy. Harriet Tubman
In 1978, the US Postal Service issued a stamp in her honor. Harriet Tubman
Created a mixture that cured her problem of her hair falling out, while living in St. Louis, and began selling it door to door. Madame C.J. Walker
Her business grew and expanded to Denver, Colorado where she became famous for her hair care products. Madame C.J. Walker
In 1910 she opened a factory in Indianapolis that employed 5,000 black women. Madame C.J. Walker
Became America's first black female millionaire. Madame C.J. Walker
Famous Opera singer in the 1930's Marian Anderson
In 1939 she was denied the chance to perform at Constitution Hall in Washington DC because she was black. Constitution Hall was owned by the Daughters of the American Revolution. Eleanor Roosevelt resigned from the DAR in protest of this. Marian Anderson
75,000 people came to the Lincoln Memorial on Easter Sunday to see this person sing. Marian Anderson
A well know author and poet, best know for the portion of her biography entitled, "I know Why the Caged Bird Sings", which tells the story of her growing up during the Great Depression. Maya Angelou
In 1993 she was invited to speak at President Clinton's Inauguration Ceremony where she read the poem, "On the Pulse of Morning". Maya Angelou
Was from New Orleans and fondly nicknamed "Satchmo" Louis Armstrong
Became famous playing jazzy tunes on the trumpet and singing in his popular gruff voice. Louis Armstrong
He recorded many albums and made more than 50 movies. Best known for his 1968 hit single "What a Wonderful World". Louis Armstrong
Died of a heart attack in 1971. Louis Armstrong
At the age of 6, in 1960, a federal judge ordered her to be allowed to enter first grade at Frantz Elementary, an all white school, in New Orleans Ruby Bridges
Angry mobs tried preventing her from entering an all white school in New Orleans. President Dwight Eisenhower ordered that she be escorted by armed federal marshals to school. Ruby Bridges
Her teacher, Mrs. Henry, said that she often prayed for forgiveness for the people who harassed her. Ruby Bridges
Became a popular poet at a very young age when her poems began to appear in popular magazines. Gwendolyn Brooks
A Chicago native, she received many awards for her writing including the Pulitzer Prize, The Lifetime Achievement Award from the National Endowments for the Arts, and she was inducted into the National Women's Hall of Fame. Gwendolyn Brooks
His mother told him, "The doors of the world are open to people who can read." Ben Carson
He graduated from Yale University and the University of Michigan Medical School. Ben Carson
His interest in the brain and in surgery led him to a career as a neurosurgeon. Ben Carson
He dedicated his life to healing children. Ben Carson
In 1984 at the age of 33 he became the director of pediatric surgery at Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland Ben Carson
Became internationally known as the surgeon who successfully separated conjoined twins joined at the head, a surgery that lasted 24 hours. Ben Carson
Born in Brooklyn, New York, she grew up on her grandmother's farm and became a teacher after college. Shirley Chisholm
In 1968 she became the first black woman in the US Congress and worked there for 14 years. Shirley Chisholm
She tried, unsuccessfully, to become president in 1972 losing the Democratic nomination to George McGovern. Shirley Chisholm
Born on a plantation in Massachusetts, he was a poorly treated slave until he escaped to Philadelphia disguised in sailor clothes Frederick Douglas
He began speaking and writing publicly about the evils of slavery. He published an anti-slavery magazine called 'The North Star' Frederick Douglas
He was such an influential speaker that he convinced Abraham Lincoln to accept black soldiers into the Union Army. Frederick Douglas
After the Civil War he spoke out for education, land ownership, and civil rights for newly freed people. Frederick Douglas
Studied the 4 types of human blood and how it could be preserved. Charles Richard Drew
Discovered and became an expert on collecting, storing, processing and shipping blood plasma. Charles Richard Drew
The ideal of a blood bank came from him. His methods helped save the lives of thousands of soldiers during World War II. Charles Richard Drew
Became the director of the Red Cross blood collection, which helps save the lives of many people. Charles Richard Drew
Was a gifted scholar, writer, and advocate of human rights who was considered one of the most influential black leaders of his time. W.E.B. DuBois
He was one of the founders of the NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored Poeple) in 1909. W.E.B. DuBois
Nicknamed "Duke" for his flashy way of dressing, became famouns as a musician, composer and band leader. Edward "Duke" Ellington
His band, The Washingtonians, played in Harlem's Cotton Club as well as opera houses in New York, Chicago, and San Francisco. Edward "Duke" Ellington
A singer, known as the "Queen of Soul", is also a diva of pop music. Aretha Franklin
Well-known for her 1967 hit "Respect", she sold millions of albums and won 15 Grammy Awards Aretha Franklin
In 1987, she became the first female performer inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Aretha Franklin
In 2009, she sang, "America the Beautiful" at President Obama's Inauguration Aretha Franklin
Invented the folding cabinet bed, a space-saver that folded up against the wall. The bed was invented for people living in small apartments. Sarah Goode
She was the first African American woman inventor to ever receive a patent in 1885. Sarah Goode
She owned and operated a furniture store in Chicago. Sarah Goode
Opened his own record store in Detroit. Barry Gordy
In 1959, he founded Motown Records earning its first gold record with Smokey Robinson's hit "Shop Around". Other famous artists recording with Motown include The Supremes, Stevie Wonder, and the Jackson Five. Barry Gordy
Best known for his poetry writings, but he also wrote plays, beographies, stories, and television scripts. Langston Hughes
His poems celebrate the ordinary black people- the people he most respected. Langston Hughes
His strong black pride flows through all his work. In 1960, the NAACP declared him "Poet Laureat of the Negro Race". Langston Hughes
Born in 1956 in Chicago, she was the first black woman to travel in space on the space shuttle Endeavor. Mae Jemison
After graduating from Stanford University and Cornell University, she joined the NASA space program in 1987. Mae Jemison
Later she became an instructor at Dartmouth University in New Hampshire. Mae Jemison
Head of Johnson Publishing Company, the largest black-owned publishing company in the world. John Johnson
He started "Ebony" magazine in 1945, and "Jet" in 1951. Both were immediately popular and are highly successful today. John Johnson
Chairman and founder of Black Entertainment Television (BET). BET is the first and only cable network targeted to African Americans. In 1991 it became the first black-owned firm to go onto the New York Stock Exchange. Robert Johnson
A graduate of the University of Illinois in 1968, he is one of the richest and most influential figures in American media. Robert Johnson
Was a great composer and pianist. As a boy in Texas he taught himself to play the piano. Scott Joplin
Played and composed a style of music known as "ragtime". Scott Joplin
He wrote 2 operas and composed over 60 songs including the famous tune, "The Entertainer" Scott Joplin
A graduate from Teas Southern University and Boston University, she was the first black female state senator ever to be elected. Barbara Jordan
In 1966 she served the state of Texas and worked for 12 years as a member of congress. Barbara Jordan
She left public office to teach at the University of Texas Barbara Jordan
In 1995 she received the Presidential Medal of Freedom from President Bill Clinton. Barbara Jordan
Was born in Atlanta, Georgia and attended Morehouse College. Martin Luther King
Was ordained a Baptist minister. Martin Luther King
Studied the teachings of Mahatma Gandhi who practiced nonviolent action to bring about change. Martin Luther King
Promoted the Montgomery Bus Boycott of 1956. Martin Luther King
In 1964 he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. Martin Luther King
He led a famous march on Washington DC where he gave his "I Have a Dream" speech to over 250,000 people, giving new energy to the civil rights movement. Martin Luther King
On April 4, 1968 he was shot and killed by James Earl Ray. He is laid to rest at Ebenezer Baptist Church in Atlanta. Martin Luther King
The national holiday celebrating his birthday was signed into law by President Ronald Reagan in 1986. Martin Luther King
Was a brilliant inventor. He invented the gas mask that helps firefighters work longer in fires. Garret Morgan
In addition to inventing the gas mask, he also invented the three way traffic light to help people drive safely. The automatic traffic light was patented in 1923 and later sold to General Electric for $40,000. Garret Morgan
Is currently the President of the United States Barak Obama
Formerly a Senator for Illinois, he was born in Hawaii and lived in Indonesia. Barak Obama
He graduated from Columbia University and Harvard Law School Barak Obama
He published two best-selling books entitled, 'Dreams From My Father' and 'The Audacity of Hope' Barak Obama
Campaigned against Hillary Clinton for the Democratic nomination for president in 2008 election. After winning the nomination, selected Joseph Biden as his running mate, and eventual Vice President. They defeated John McCain and Sarah Palin. Barak Obama
Nicknamed "Duke" for his flashy way of dressing, became famous as a musician, composer and band leader. Edward "Duke" Ellington
His band, The Washingtonians, played in Harlem's Cotton Club as well as opera houses in New York, Chicago, and San Francisco. Edward "Duke" Ellington
A singer, known as the "Queen of Soul", is also a diva of pop music. Aretha Franklin
Well-known for her 1967 hit "Respect", she sold millions of albums and won 15 Grammy Awards Aretha Franklin
In 1987, whe became the first female performer inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Aretha Franklin
In 2009, she sang, "America the Beautiful" at President Obama's Inauguration Aretha Franklin
Invented the folding cabinet bed, a space-saver that folded up against the wall. The bed was invented for people living in small apartments. Sarah Goode
She was the first African American woman inventor to ever receive a patent in 1885. Sarah Goode
She owned and operated a furniture store in Chicago. Sarah Goode
Opened his own record store in Detroit. Barry Gordy
In 1959, he founded Motown Records earning its first gold record with Smokey Robinson's hit "Shop Around". Other famous artists recording with Motown include The Supremes, Stevie Wonder, and the Jackson Five. Barry Gordy
Best known for his poetry writings, but he also wrote plays, beigraphies, stories, and television scripts. Langston Hughes
His poems celebrate the ordinary black people- the people he most respected. Langston Hughes
His strong black pride flows through all his work. In 1960, the NAACP declared him "Poet Laureat of the Negro Race". Langston Hughes
Bone in 1956 in Chicago, she was the first black woman to travel in space on the space shuttle Endeavor. Mae Jemison
After graduatin from Stanford University and Cornell University, she joined the NASA space program in 1987. Mae Jemison
Later she became an instructor at Dartmouth University in New Hampshire. Mae Jemison
Head of Johnson Publishing Company, the largest black-owned publishing company in the world. John Johnson
He started "Ebony" magazine in 1945, and "Jet" in 1951. Both were immediately popular and are highly successful today. John Johnson
Chairman and founder of Black Entertainment Television (BET). BEt is the first and only cable network targeted to African Americans. In 1991 it became the first black-owned firm to go onto the New york Stock Exchange. Robert Johnson
A graduate of the University of Illinois in 1968, he is one of the richest and most influential figures in American media. Robet Johnson
Was a great composer and pianist. As a boy in Texas he taught himself to play the piano. Scott Joplin
Played and composed a style of music known as "ragtime". Scott Joplin
He wrote 2 operas and composed over 60 songs including the famous tune, "The Entertainer" Scott Joplin
A graduate from Teas Southern University and Boston University, she was the first black female state senator ever to be elected. Barbara Jordan
In 1966 she served gthe state of Texas and worked for 12 years as a member of congress. Barbara Jordan
She left public office to teach at the University of Texas Barbara Jordan
In 1995 she received the Presidential Medal of Freedom from President Bill Clinton. Barbara Jordan
Was born in Atlanta, Georgia and attended Morehouse College. Martin Luther King
Was ordained a Baptist minister. Martin Luther King
Studined the teachings of Mahatma Gandhi wo practiced nonviolent action to bring about change. Martin Luther King
Promoted the Montgomery Bus Boycott of 1956. Martin Luther King
In 1964 he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. Martin Luther King
He led a famous march on Washington DC where he gave his "I Have a Dream" speech to over 250,000 people, giving new energy to the civil rights movement. Martin Luther King
On April 4, 1968 he was shot and killed by James Earl Ray. He is laid to rest at Ebenezer Baptist Church in Atlanta. Martin Luther King
The national holiday celebrating his birthday was signed into law by President Ronald Reagan in 1986. Martin Luther King
Was a brilliant inventor. he invented the gas mask that helps firefighters work longer in fires. Garret Morgan
In addition to inventing the gas mask, he also invented the three way traffic light to help people drive safely. The automatic traffic light was patented in 1923 and later sold to General Electric for $40,000. Garret Morgan
Is currently the President of the United States. The major issues he is facing are the recession and health care reform. Barak Obama
Formerly a Senator for Illinois, he was born in Hawaii and lived in Indonesia. Barak Obama
he graduated from Columbia University and Harvard Law School Barak Obama
He published two best-selling books entitled, 'Dreams From My Father' and 'The Audacity of Hope' Barak Obama
Campaigned against Hillary Clinton for the Democratic nomination for president in 2008 election. After winning the nomination, selected Joseph Biden as his running mate, and eventual Vice President. They defeated John McCain and Sarah Palin. Barak Obama
At the age of 22 he won 4 gold medals in track and field events in the 1936 Olympics in Berlin Jesse Owens
During the 1936 Olympics in Berlin, Germany Adolph Hitler was the nazi leader and convince many Germans that they were the "master race" and was not happy that this person was setting new world records. Jesse Owens
Victories in setting new world records and winning 4 gold medals in track and field, in the 1936 Olympics in Berlin, Germany helped demonstrate how athletic competition can improve racial problems and bring people together. Jesse Owens
Knowing the likely punishment, refused to give up her seat to a white passenger on a Montgomery, Alabama bus. In 1955 this was the law. This peaceful protest helped spark the civil rights movement of the 1960's. Rosa Parks
Led a bus boycott by not giving up her seat to a white person. This boycott lasted just over 1 year (381 days) until the law was changed forcing blacks to give up their seats to the whites. Rosa Parks
Made history after hear death in 2005 at the age of 92 by becoming the first woman to lie in state at the Capitol Rotunda in Washington DC Rosa Parks
Drafted by the Chicago Bears in 1975, he played until 1987, and is often considered the greatest funning back in the history of football. Walter Payton
Held many records for rushing the football, and was active in local charities. Walter Payton
His son, Jarrett, gave the speech wehn he was inducted into the Football Hall of Fame. Water Payton
His death in 1999 of a rare liver disease increased the awareness of the importance of organ donation. Walter Payton
Known as one of the West's most exciting cowboys, he worked in the 101 Ranch in Oklahoma with Will Rogers. Bill Pickett
Perfected the art of steer wrestling and performed in rodeo shows in London, New York City, and Mexico City. Bill Pickett
The son of a slave who excapted via the Underground Railroad, was a brilliant student and talented athlete Paul Robeson
Only the thrid black person admitted to Rutgers University, he went on to earn 12 varsity letters in baseball, football, basketball and track. Paul Robeson
Was elected to Phi Beta Kappa, a national honor society for outstanding students and graduated as valedictoria from Rutgers University. Paul Robeson
Earned a law degree in 2 years, but was most interested in a career in acting. his role as Joe in the musical "Showboat" featured his popular rendition of "Ol' Man River". He starred in Shakespear's "Othello" in England to sold out crowds. Paul Robeson
Was the first black man to play on a Major League Baseball team Jackie Robinson
Before being signed by Branch Ricky to the Brooklyn Dodgers in 1945, he playted for the Kansas City Monarchs of the Negro National league. Upon entering the majors, he was often treated badly by players and fans. Jackie Robinson
he was named Rookie of the Year, Most Valuable Player, and inducted into the BAaseball Hall of Fame. His success and personal strength paved the way for other black Americans Jackie Robinson
Her tremendous voice earned her the title of "Empress of the Blues". Bessie Smith
born in Chattanooga, Tennessee, she sang with famous blues singer Ma Rainey, and soon became the highest paid blues singer in the country. Bessie Smith
Her 1923 recording of "Down Hearted Blues" sold 2 million copies. Bessie Smith
She played basketball for Texas Tech University, scoring 47 points in the national championship game. Sheryl Swoopes
Earned 3 Olympic gold medals with the US Woman's Basketball team in 1996, 2000, and 2004. Sheryl Swoopes
Was one of the first women drafted to play professionally in the WNBA (Women's National Basketball Association) with the Houston Comets. She lead the Comets to 4 consecutive championships. Sheryl Swoopes
Was a very dramatic and effective speaker who traveled across the country giving speeches on slavery and women's rights. Sojourner Truth
She changed her name from Isabella Baumfree after she escaped from slavery. Sojourner Truth
Her famous speech, "Ain't I a Woman?", was given at the 1851 Women's Right's Convention, though she could not read or write. Sojourner Truth
She wsa invited to the White House by Abraham Lincoln. Sojourner Truth
As part owner of a Memphis newspaper called "Free Speech", this journalist spoke out against the action of lynching, or hanging, of black men. She wrote angry articles and even published names of men repsonsible for the hangings. Ida B Wells
She is the co-founder of the NAACP in 1909 with W.E.B. DuBois Ida B Wells
Was kidnapped by slave traders at age 8 and brought to America. She was purchased by the Wheatly family who soon realized that she was very intelligent. She learned to read and write, disallowed for most slaves. She died at age 31 Phyllis Wheatly
Became known internationally as a gifted poet during the Revolutionary War period. her poems were recognized by George Washington and John Hancock. Phyllis Wheatly
A popular TV personality, she got her first big break hosting the talk show "AM Chicago" later renamed "The Oprah Winfrey Show" in 1985. Oprah Winfrey
her intelligence, honesty, and engaging personality attracted a wide audience. Oprah Winfrey
Project such as Oprah's Book Club and The Angel Netowrk have been effective in promoting literacy and philanthropy. Oprah Winfrey
She is the first black woman to obtain billionaire status. Oprah Winfrey
In 1893 he became the surgeon who did the world's first successful heart operation. Daniel Hale Williams
He opened a hospital in Chicago to provide medical training for black doctors and nurses. Daniel Hale Williams
he opened over 49 hospitals for black patients since many hopsitals only provided help to white patients. Daniel Hale Williams
Known as "The Black Edison", this brilliant inventor received over 60 patents for inventions including the telephone transmitter, which the American Bell Company bought the rights to. Daniel Hale Williams
Some of his inventions included the electric egg incubator and the automatic air brake system, which increased railroad safety, besides inventing the telephone transmitter. Granville T Woods
Other inventions include the "third rail" that made subway systems possible, and a device for transmitting messages between trains and stations, improving safety and communication. Granville T Woods
Created by: judymilligan