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BIOL 201


brain plus spinal cord Central Nervous System
nerves that connect the brain or spinal cord with the body's muscles, glands, and sense organs Peripheral Nervous System
cell in nervous system specialized to initiate, integrate, and conduct electrical signals Neurons or nerve cells
highly branched extension of neuron cell body; receives synaptic input from other neurons Dendrite
contains the nucleus and ribosomes and thus the genetic info and machinery necessary for protein synthesis Cell body or soma
extension from neuron cell body and carries output to its target cells; also called nerve fiber Axon
the region where the axon connects to the cell body; known as the "trigger zone" where the electrical signals are generated Initial segment or Axon hillock
end of axon; forms synaptic or neuroeffector junction with postjunctional cell Axon terminal
insulating material covering axons of many neurons; made up of 75% fat Myelin
process involving intracellular filaments by which materials are moved from one end of axon to other, using the "motor proteins" kinesins (toward terminal) and dyneins (away from terminal) Axonal Transport
kinesin transport from the cell body toward the axon terminal; important in moving nutrient molecules, enzymes, mitochondria and other organelles Anterograde
dynein transport away from the axon terminal carrying recycled membrane vesicles, and other chemical signals. Is also the route by which some harmful agents invade the CNS, including tetanus toxin, & the herpes simplex, rabies, & polio viruses Retrograde
Know the 3 types of neurons Multi-polar(motor neurons, efferent pathway), Uni-polar (sensory neurons, afferent pathway), Bi-polar (Only in retina)
Know the 3 functional classes of neurons, what they are, and how they work. Interneurons (99% of ours), Efferent, & Afferent
space between adjacent myelin-forming cells along axon where axonal plasma membrane is exposed to extracellular fluid node of Ranvier
non-neural cell that forms myelin sheath in peripheral nervous system Schwann cell(only type of glial in PNS)
neuron whose cell body and axon lie entirely in CNS; connects neurons in CNS Interneurons(great majority of ours)
neuron that carriers information AWAY from CNS to effector cells, particularly muscles, glands, or other neurons Efferent neurons
neuron that carries info INTO the CNS from sensory receptors at their peripheral endings, connected to tissues & organs of the body. Most have no dendrites (do not receive inputs from other neurons Afferent neurons
group of many nerve fibers traveling together in PNS Nerves
anatomically specialized junction between two neurons where electrical activity in one neuron influences excitability of second Synapse
neuron that conducts action potentials toward a synapse Presynaptic neuron
neuron that conducts information away from a synapse Postsynaptic neuron
non-neuronal cell in CNS; helps regulate extracellular environment of CNS Glial cell
Know 5 types of Glial cells and their system location Astrocytes (most common), Obligodendrocytes, Microglia, & Ependymal; All in CNS. Schwann cells only kind in PNS
Know the 4 functions of Astrocytes Participate in the metabolism of neurotransmitters, maintain proper balance of K for generation of nerve impulses, help form the blood-brain barrier that regulates passage of substances into the brain, & provide a link between neurons and blood vessels
voltage difference between two points Electrical potential
hindrance to movement through a particular substance, tube, or opening Resistance
voltage difference between inside and outside of cell in absence of stimulation Resting membrane potential (phys level is -70mV)
changes in membrane potential that are confined to a relatively small region of the plasma membrane (good for interneurons, not long distances)It has no threshold or refractory period Graded potential
to change membrane potential value toward zero so that cell interior becomes less negative than resting level (only happens w/ Na). Depolarization
part of the action potential in which the membrane potential goes above zero Overshoot
return transmembrane potential to its resting level Repolarize
to change membrane potential so cell interior becomes more negative than its resting state Hyperpolarize
the flow of charge decreases as the distance from the site of origin of the graded potential increases Decremental
a brief all-or-none depolarization of the membrane, reversing polarity in neurons; it has a threshold and refractory period and is conducted without decrement Action potential
cell membrane ion channel opened or closed by changes in membrane potential Voltage gated channels (will open at -55mV)
potion of the voltage-gated Na or K channel that closes the channel Inactivation gate
membrane potential above which an excitable cell initiates an action potential Threshold potential (-55mV level)
membrane capable of producing action potentials Excitable membrane
when the membrane reaches a critical threshold potential, depolarization becomes a (+) feedback loop. Na entry causes depolarization, which opens more voltage-gated Na channels, which causes more depolarization and so on Ex: of positive feedback in a voltage gated channel; Na channels pull further from -70mV
voltage-gated K channels bring the action potential to an end and induce their own closing of the channels Ex: of negative feedback process; K channels bring V back closer to -70mV
Properties of action potentials Action potentials have a "max" frequency, can only move in 1 direction. AP's in motor-neurons can go in both directions (only exception)
stimulus capable of depolarizing membrane just to threshold Threshold stimuli
conduction of nerve impulse Propagation
propagation of action potentials along a myelinated axon such that the action potentials jump from one node of Ranvier in the myelin sheath to the next Saltatory conduction (to leap)
a spontaneously occurring graded potential change that occurs in certain specialized cells Pacemaker potential (ex: small intestine, heart)
time during which an excitable membrane does not respond to a stimulus that normally causes response Refractory period
synapse that, when activated, increases likelihood that postsynaptic neuron will undergo AP or increases frequency of existing APs Excitatory synapse
synapse that, when activated, decreases likelihood that postsynaptic neuron will fire an AP or decreases frequency of existing APs Inhibitory synapse
many presynaptic neurons synapsing upon one postsynaptic neuron Convergence
one presynaptic neuron synapsing upon many postsynaptic neurons Divergence
There can be two types of synapses, electrical or chemical Function of synapses
cellular structure that holds and releases neurotransmitter at the synapse Synaptic vesicle
depolarizing graded potential in postsynaptic neuron in response to activation of excitatory synapse Excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP)
hyper-polarizing graded potential that arises in postsynaptic neuron in response to activation of inhibitory synaptic endings upon it; EX: Cl or K channels open, cell becomes more (-) Inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP)
presynaptic synapse where an axon stimulates the presynaptic terminal of another axon Axo-axonic synapse
excitatory input to neurons through synapses at the nerve terminal Presynaptic facilitation
inhibitory input to neurons through synapses at the nerve terminal Presynaptic inhibition
a receptor on a cell affected by a chemical messenger released from the same cell (form of negative feedback) Autoreceptor
temporary inability of a receptor to respond to its ligand due to prior ligand binding Receptor desensitization
chemical messenger that acts on neurons, usually by a 2nd messenger system, to alter response of a neurotransmitter Neuromodulator
Know the 5 most common classes of Chemical Neurotransmitters(chemicals that act very quick/short periods) or Neuromodulators(chemicals that act slowly/long periods) Acetylcholine, Biogenic amines, Amino acids(Glutamate & GABA), Neuropeptides, & Miscellaneous(Gases ex: NO2 & CO2)
Know the sub-classes of Biogenic amines: Catecholamines (Dopamine, Norepinephrine, Epinephrine), Serotonin, & Histamine
a major neurotransmitter released in the PNS at the neuromuscular junction and in the brain Acetylcholine (ACh)
enzyme that breaks down acetylcholine into acetic acid and choline Acetylcholinesterase
Four sub-divsions of the brain Cerebrum, Diencephalon(together make up the Forebrain), Brainstem(Midbrain, Pons, Medulla oblongata), and Cerebellum
Four subdivisions of the Forebrain Cerebral Hemisphere, Thalamus, Hypothalamus, Limbic System
Cerebral hemisphere consist of: Cerebral cortex, an outer shell of "gray matter" (cell bodies), and and inner layer of "white matter" (myelinated fiber/fat)
wide band of nerve fibers connecting the left and right cerebral hemispheres Corpus callosum
Cellular layer covering the cerebrum Cerebral cortex
The cortex of each cerebral hemisphere is divided into 4 lobes: Frontal, Parietal, Occipital, & Temporal
raised ridges on the outer surface of the cerebral cortex Gyrus (gyri)
deep grooves between gyri on the surface of the cerebral cortex Sulcus (sulci)
large neuron with pyramid shaped cell body which form the major output cells of the cortex Pyramidal cells
1 of 2 major parts of Diencephalon; "Grand Central Station". Integrating center for sensory input on its way to cerebral cortex Thalamus
other major part of Diencephalon, brain region below thalumus; responsible for integration of many basic neural & behavioral functions Hypothalamus
endocrine gland that lies below hypothalamus Pituitary gland
interconnected brain structures in cerebrum; involved with emotions and memory formation (Hippocampus) Limbic system
brain subdivision lying behind forebrain and above brainstem; deals with muscle movement control/ balance control Cerebellum
brain subdivision consisting of midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata Brainstem
brainstem contains nuclei involved in processing info for 10 of the 12 "pairs" of cranial nerves these are the peripheral nerves that connect directly with the brain and communicates with the muscles, glands, and sensory receptors of the head as well as many organs in the body
The Cranial Nerves: Olfactory I(smell) & Optic II(in eye) are NOT "true nerves". Know: Facial VII(Efferent, controls facial expression & swallowing), Vestibulocochlear VIII(Afferent; transmits in from receptors in ear), & Vagus X(Efferent; used to control voice)
regions of gray matter in the spinal cord containing cell bodies of interneurons & motoer neurons Dorsal horn & Ventral horn
group of afferent nerve fibers that enters dorsal region of spinal cord Dorsal root
group of "afferent" sensory nerve cell bodies that have axons projecting to the dorsal horn of the spinal cord Dorsal root Ganglion
one of two groups of efferent fibers that leave ventral side of spinal cord Ventral root
one of 86 peripheral nerves (43 pairs) that join spinal cord Spinal nerve; there are (31) pairs of spinal nerves. The remaining (12) are the cranial nerves
Know the # of spinal nerves in each of the main sections of the spinal cord Cervical (8), Thoracic (12), Lumbar (5), Sacral (5), & Coccyx (1)
component of efferent peripheral nervous system, consists of single neruon chain that innervates skeletal muscle Somatic nervous system
component of efferent peripheral nervous system, consists of parasympatheitc & sympathetic subdivisions; has "two-neuron" chains, innervates smooth & cardiac muscle, glands, & GI neurons Autonomic nervous system
activation of sympathetic nervous system due to increased conditions of physical or psychological stress Fight-or-flight response
activation of parasympathetic nervous system in which homeostatic functions are predominant Rest-or-digest
innervation of an organ or gland by both sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve fibers Dual innervation
fluid that fills cerebral ventricles and the "subarachnoid space" surrounding brain and spinal cord Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
protective membranes that cover brain and spinal cord (3 types; Dura mater, Arachnoid mater, and Pia mater) Meninges
Created by: jhanson79



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