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BIOL 201


a specific protein in either the plasma membrane or the interior of a target cell that a chemical messenger combines within thereby invoking a biologically relevant response in that cell Receptor (receptor protein)
the ability of a receptor to bind only one type or a limited number of structurally related types of chemical messengers Specificity
the degree to which receptors are occupied by messengers. If all are occupied, the receptors are fully saturated; 100%, and so on Saturation
the strength with which a chemical messenger binds to its receptor Affinity
the ability of different molecules very similar in structure to compete with each other to combine with the same receptor Competition
a molecule that competes for a receptor with a chemical messenger normally present in the body. Binds to the receptor but does not trigger the cell's response. Ex; Antihistamines Antagonist
a chemical messenger that binds to a receptor and triggers the cell's response; often refers to a drug that mimics a normal messengers action. Ex: Decongestants Agonist
a decrease in the total number of target-cell receptors for a given messenger; may occur in response to chronic high extracellular concentration of the messenger Down-regulation
an increase in the total number of target-cell receptors for a given messenger; may occur in response to a chronic low extracellular concentration of the messenger. Up-regulation
the increased responsiveness of a target cell to a given messenger; may result from up-regulation of receptors Supersensitivity
change in receptor conformation caused by combination of messenger with receptor Receptor activation
any enzyme that phosphorylates other proteins by transferring a phosphate group to them from ATP Protein Kinase
sequence of mechanisms that relay information from plasma-membrane receptor to cell's response mechanism Signal Transduction Pathway
class of intracellular receptor proteins that bind steroid hormones and other lipophilic molecules and induce changes in gene transcription Steroid Hormone Receptor Superfamily
one of a class of proteins that act as gene switches, regulating the transcription of a particular gene by activating or repressing the initiation process Transcription Factor
membrane channel operated by the binding of specific molecules to channel proteins Ligand-gated Channel
the major type of receptor protein that is itself an enzyme; these receptors are on plasma membranes and respond to many different water-soluble chemical messengers Receptor Tyrosine Kinase
the intercellular chemical messengers that reach the cell from the extracellular fluid and bind to their specific plasma membrane receptors First Messengers
substances that enter or are generated in the cytoplasm as a result of receptor activation by the first messenger Second Messengers
cyclic nucleotide that acts as second messenger in some cells cGMP
enzyme that is activated by cyclic GMP, and then phosphorylates specific proteins, thereby altering their activity cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase
one protein from a family of regulatory proteins that reversibly bind guanosine nucleotides; these interact with membrane ion channels or enzymes G protein
enzyme that catalyzes transformation of ATP to cyclic AMP (cAMP) Adenylyl cyclase
cyclic nucleotide that serves as a second messenger for many "first" chemical messengers Cyclic AMP (cAMP)
enzyme that catalyzes cyclic AMP breakdown to AMP Phosphodiesterase
enzyme that is activated by cyclic AMP and then phosphorylates specific proteins, thereby altering their activity cAMP-dependent protein kinase
second messenger that activates protein kinase C, which then phosphorylates a large number of other proteins Diacylglycerol (DAG)
second messenger that causes release of calcium from endoplasmic reticulum into cytosol Inositol trisphosphate (IP3)
enzyme that phosphorylates certain intracellular proteins when activated by diacylglycerol Protein kinase C
intracellular calcium-binding protein that mediates many of calcium's second-messenger functions Calmodulin
an intracellular enzyme that, when activated by calcium and the protein calmodulin, phosphorylates many protein substrates within cells; it is a component of many intracellular signaling mechanisms Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase
Created by: jhanson79