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Physiology Chapter 1

Physiology C1

QuestionAnswer
What are the levels of organization in the human body? What is the sequence of order: simplest to most complex? 1. Chemical (Simplest) 2. Cellular Level 3. Tissue Level 4. Organ level. 5. Organ System 6. Organism Level (Most complex)
Chemical Level The Simplest Level. Atomic and molecular level matter living or non-living are made of atoms and molecules
Cellular Level Smallest living unit in the body
Tissue Level Group of cells and the materials surrounding them that work together on one task. There are 4 basic types of tissue: - epithelial, muscle, connective and nerve tissue.
Organ Level Grouping of 2 or more tissue types into a recognizable structure with a specific function. (Example: Stomach – Outside → Muscle Tissur, Inside → Epithelial Tissue.
Organ System Collection of related organs with a common function. Sometimes an organ is par of more than one system. For example: Mouth, stomach and small intestine are some of the organs of the digestive system.
Organism Level The Most Complex. One living individual compose of many different body systems working together to achieve homeostasis.
What are five substances all life needs in order to function? -Water -Food -Oxygen -Heat -Pressure (from air or water) * Food and Oxygen allow us to metabolize and produce heat
How does water contribute to homeostasis? Water – Body is 75% water. It is necessary for chemical reaction, transport through circulatory system, and the removal of waste products.
How does food contribute to homeostasis? Food – It is the fuel (raw material) for metabolism and energy and heat.
How does oxygen contribute to homeostasis? Oxygen – Facilitates metabolism at the cellular level in releasing energy form nutrients. Necessary for breathing
How does heat contribute to homeostasis? Heat – More heat the faster our chemical reactions will be. It is a byproduct of metabolism
How does pressure (from air or water) contribute to homeostasis? Pressure (from air or water) – It helps in facilitating breathing and regulates blood flow.)
What is homeostasis? The maintenance of optimal physiological conditions within the body so that vital functions can be performed without deviations or disturbances. Homeo = The Same Stasis = To Stay
What are the mechanisms of homeostatic control? 1. Receptor – Sensors 2. Integrating Center (Control Center) 3. Effector
Describe the receptor mechanisms? Receptor – Sensors •Monitors a controlled condition •On its own, it cannot make a change. •Senses how much pressure is applied.
Describe the Integrating Center (Control Center) mechanism? Integrating Center (Control Center) – •It is often the brain •Communicates to the effector and determines the next action.
Describe the effector mechanism? Effector – •Usually a muscle or gland •Receives direction from the control center •Produces a response that changes the condition.
Homeostatic Responses are: •Widespread •Localized – change in cell activity in a localized area of the body •Utilize Chemical Messengers: •Hormones: Chemical secreted into bloodstream •Neurotransmitters: Chemicals secreted by nerve cells.
What is a Negative Feedback Loop? • A stimulus is reversed. • Most feedback systems in our body are negative • Used for conditions that need frequent adjustment. For example: Body Temperature, Blood Sugar Levels and Blood Pressure.
What is a Positive Feedback Loop? Positive Feedback Loop: •Original stimulus in intensified (snowball effect) •Violent reactions – where body is in danger and needs to make a rapid response to get to homeostasis.
What is the difference between an atomic number and mass number? Atomic number is the number of protons in the nucleus. Atomic Mass is the sum of the protons and neutrons
How is mass determined? What is the mass of Helium (He)? Atomic Mass = # Protons + # Neutrons Example: Helium – He 2p+2n= 4
How is mass determined? What is the mass of Helium (He)? Atomic Mass = # Protons + # Neutrons Example: Helium – He 2p+2n= 4
What are chemical Elements? Elements are substances that can be split into simpler substances by ordinary means.
What are the 12 most abundant elements in the human body? •Carbon – C •Hydrogen – H •Oxygen – O •Nitrogen – N •Calcium – Ca •Phosphorous – P •Potassium – K •Iron – Fe •Sulfur – S •Sodium – Na •Chlorine – Cl •Magnesium - Mg
Which 4 elements make up 96% of the body’s mass? •Carbon – C •Hydrogen – H •Oxygen – O •Nitrogen – N
Which 8 elements make up but 0.2% of body mass? •Calcium – Ca •Phosphorous – P •Potassium – K •Iron – Fe •Sulfur – S •Sodium – Na •Chlorine – Cl •Magnesium - Mg
What components make up an atom? Components that make up an atom: Nucleus – Contains 2 types of subatomic particles (1)Protons – Positive Charge (2) Neutrons – Neutral Charge Electrons – Negative Charge – Orbit the Nucleus. Orbits are also referred to as shells.
What is an Atom? Atoms - Smallest units of matter that retain the properties of an element.
What is the charge of a Potassium Ion? Does it gain or lose an electron? Potassium – 19 protons . To be neutral it will have 19 electrons. Considering how many electrons a shell can hold to become stable. Potassium has 1 extra electron in the 4th shell. It will lose an electron to become a positively charged ion (cation) K+
What is a cation? A positively charged ion.
What is an anion? A negatively charged ion.
What are the 12 most abundant elements in the human body? •Carbon – C •Hydrogen – H •Oxygen – O •Nitrogen – N •Calcium – Ca •Phosphorous – P •Potassium – K •Iron – Fe •Sulfur – S •Sodium – Na •Chlorine – Cl •Magnesium - Mg
Which 4 elements make up 96% of the body’s mass? •Carbon – C •Hydrogen – H •Oxygen – O •Nitrogen – N
Which 8 elements make up but 0.2% of body mass? •Calcium – Ca •Phosphorous – P •Potassium – K •Iron – Fe •Sulfur – S •Sodium – Na •Chlorine – Cl •Magnesium - Mg
What components make up an atom? Components that make up an atom: Nucleus – Contains 2 types of subatomic particles (1)Protons – Positive Charge (2) Neutrons – Neutral Charge Electrons – Negative Charge – Orbit the Nucleus. Orbits are also referred to as shells.
What is an Atom? Atoms - Smallest units of matter that retain the properties of an element.
What is the charge of a Potassium Ion? Does it gain or lose an electron(s)? Potassium – 19 protons . To be neutral it will have 19 electrons. Considering how many electrons a shell can hold to become stable. Potassium has 1 extra electron in the 4th shell. It will lose an electron to become a positively charged ion (cation) K+
What is a cation? A positively charged ion.
What is an anion? A negatively charged ion.
What is the charge of a Chlorine Ion? Does it gain or lose an electron(s)? Chlorine has 17 protons. It only has 7electrons in the 3rd shell. 8 is needed to become stable, therefore it gains an electron to become a negatively charge ion → anion. Cl-
What is the difference between a molecule and a compound? Molecule – More than one atom bound together Compound – Molecule containing different kind of atoms Examples: Water -H2O – 2 Hydrogen and 1 Oxygen
What are examples of a molecule? Examples are: Oxygen, O2 and Nitrogen, N2 – contains the same element.
What are examples of compounds? An ionic compound? Examples: Water -H2O – 2 Hydrogen and 1 Oxygen. Ionic Compound: Na+ + Cl- = NaCl – Table salt.
Why does sodium always occur as a +1 ion in the human body? Sodium (Na) – Has a tendency to lose an electron. There is one valence electron in the outermost shell. In order to become stable it will lose an electron to become +1 ion - Na+
Why does hydrogen always occur as a +1 ion in the human body? In physiology Hydrogen (H) will always dump an electron and will have a +1 charge (loses an e-) - H+
Why does potassium always occur as a +1 ion in he human body? Potassium (K) – Has a tendency to lose an electron to become stable. There is one valence electron in the outermost shell. . In order to become stable will lose an electron to become a +1 ion → K+
If you have gastrointestinal upset accompanied by vomiting and/or diarrhea, why do you feel weak muscles? Gastrointestinal upset causes a lost in electrolytes. Electrolytes are needed b/c our body runs on electrical energy.(1) Weak Muscles – Loss of Calcium - Ca2+ through vomiting. Calcium is what is needed for muscles to contract.
If you have gastrointestinal upset accompanied by vomiting and/or diarrhea, why do you feel light-headedness? (2) Light-headedness – Loss of Sodium - Na+ – Loss of electrolytes. Causes blood pressure to go down due to inadequate blood flow.
If you have gastrointestinal upset accompanied by vomiting and/or diarrhea, why do you experience unclear thinking? (3) Unclear Thinking – Loss of Na+ effects the nervous system. Electrolytes are needed to power your brain.
What is the difference is an Ionic Bond? Give an example. Ionic Bond – When positively and negatively charged ions attract each other to form a bond that is electrically neutral. Examples: Teeth, Bones, Blood Table Salt Na+ + Cl- → NaCl – Sodium Chloride Body Salt → K+ + Cl- → KCl – Potassium Chlorid
What is a Covalent Bond? Covalent Bonds – When atoms share electrons (more polite bonds). Larger molecules (macromolecules) exist in the body are formed by covalent bonds. They are strong enough to hold huge molecules, some of them thousands of molecules in length.
Give an example of a covalent bond? Examples of Hydrogen bond: Hydrogen – H2 This is a single bond and since Hydrogen only has one electron in its last orbita;. It pairs up with another hydrogen to become stable. CH4 - Methane
What does it mean to have a single bond? Double bond? Triple Bond? Single Bond = Share 1 Pair Double Bond = Share 2 Pairs Triple Bond = Share 3 Pairs
What is a polar covalent bond? Polar Covalent Bond - An unequal sharing of electrons between atoms. In polar covalent bonds atoms of different sizes often bigger atom exerts more force of electrons than smaller ones.
What is an example of a polar covalent bond? H20-one of the best-known pol. covalent bonds.In a H20 molecule,oxygn attracts hydrogn -e's more strongly.Oxygn has a greater electronegativity.The hydrogn molecules have a partially (+)charge.It is strng enough to brk apart ionic bonds & hold ions apart.
What is an amphipathic molecules? Molecules with a hydrophobic region and a hydrophilic region.
What are examples of an amphipathic molecule? Examples: Fats, Oils, Wax. An example in the body is the cell membrane which has phospholipids (fats) these molecules protect the inside content of the cell from the exterior.
How is soap an amphipathic molecule? Soap. How do you get grease off of a dish? The soap molecule has a hydrophobic end that attracts the grease and pulls it off the dish. It also has a hydrophilic end which helps move the grease with water down the drain.
Why are amphipathic molecules important to the human body? They function as transporters of hydrophobic material in the hydrophilic environment of the body.
Why is it important for lipids (fats) to bond to an amphipathic molecule? A simple example is that lipids (fat) cannot circulate the body along with blood unless it is bonded to an amphipathic molecule or else lipids will not be able to move in the vessels and will make obstructions.
What is a hydrogen bond? Hydrogen Bonds – Weak bonds • Formed by the attraction between slightly positive hydrogen atom and a slightly negative atom of another element •Gives water its unique characteristics. •Breaking and Formation of new bonds.
Give examples of Hydrogen bonds? Examples: Curling Iron to Hair. Ironing Cloths. Hydrogen bonds are constantly broken and new bonds are formed.
What is the significance of hydrogen bonds in human body? Its significance in the body can be seen in water molecules. The ability for these bonds to break and be reformed allows water to release heat or retain heat. Hydrogen bonds are able to moderate temperature in our body.
Why does water function so well to moderate temperature? High heat capacity.Can absorb a large amount of heat w/only a small increase in its own temperature.-Large amount of water in body helps lessen the impact of environmental changes in temp.Why it is much cooler in coastal areas, compared to inland areas.
Why does water function so well to pH (Potential Hydrogen)? Water forms two ions:Hydrogen ion (H +)- Acid & Hydroxide ion (OH-)-Base Increase the amount of hydrogen ions (H+), and the water becomes more acid ("low pH"). Increase the amount of hydroxide ions (OH-), and the water becomes more alkaline ("high pH").
What are free radicals? Free radicals are unbalanced molecules. They are when an atom has an extra (unpaired) electron in its outermost shell – this makes the atom unstable and highly reactive. •Free radicals usually attack the nerves
What diseases are free radicals linked to? They are linked to many disease: Cancer, diabetes, Alzheimer’s, Atherosclerosis, Arthritis
How are free radicals formed? •Over-exposure to UV rays •Multiple X-Rays •Normal metabolic reactions – production of hydrogen peroxide molecules.
How do you inhibit free radicals? •Free Radicals can become stable by giving up an electron, or taking one from another molecule. – such as antioxidants such as Vitamin A, C and E bind to free electrons inhibiting it form doing damage to the body, more specifically nerve tissue
Define pH. How is it measured? pH – Potential Hydrogen–It lets us know the acidity and alkalinity (how basic) a solution is. It is measured by concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution.
What is considered neutral? What is an acid? What is a base? •Solutions with a pH = 7.0 are neutral •Solutions with a pH < 7.0 are acidic Acids – Dissolved in water. Create H+ ions •Solutions with a pH > 7.0 are alkaline (basic) Base – Is an OH- Ion.
An Acid + Base make? Acid + Base = Salt
What happens when pH increases? pH increases, H+ decreases
A difference of 1.0 in pH means what difference in H+? A difference of 1.0 in pH means a 10-x difference in H+ - For example, a solution of pH 7 has 10 x the [H+] of a solution of pH -For example, a solution of pH 5 has 100 x the [H+] of a solution of pH
What are the four major classes of organic molecules (macromolecules)? 1.Carbohydrates 2.Lipids (Fats, Oils, Waxes, grease) 3.Proteins 4.Nucleic Acids
Which organic molecules (macromolecules) are hydrophilic? Hydrophobic? Carbohydrates, Proteins and Nucleic Acids are hydrophilic. Lipids are hydrophobic.
What is the function of carbohydrates? What are their monomer? Function: Energy Monomer (single unit): Monosaccharide – “1 Sugar” – “Simple Sugar” Types of Monosaccahrides: ➢Glucose – Blood Sugar. Energy for the brain. ➢Galactose – Often in the form of dairy ➢Fructose – Often in the form of fruit.
What is the function of Lipids? Functions: 1.Storage – form triglycerides → protection of organs 2.Hormones – Steroids (sex, hormones, cholesterol, cortisol (anti-inflammatory) 3.Structural – Cell membranes – made of phospholipids make the cell more stable as it is hydrophobic.
What are the monomers of Lipids? Monomer: Fatty Acids
What are the first 3 functions of Proteins? 1.Structural– For example collagen a fibrous protein that provides strength in connective tissues. In tendons and ligaments. 2.Hormones–(epinephrine, adrenaline) 3.Oxygen Transport (Hemoglobin – protein that carries oxygen)
What are the last 2 functions of Proteins? 4.Cell receptors/channels 5.Antibodies 6.Enzymes
What are the monomers of proteins? Monomer: Amino Acids – 20 different – 9 occur naturally in the body.
What is the function of carbohydrates? What are their monomer? Functions: Genetic info – Blueprint for Body. (i.e. DNA & RNA) Monomer: Nucleotides
What types of bonds are used to hold together the polymers of the four macromolecules? Covalent bonds (bonds which share electrons) are used to hold together polymers of the four macromolecules. This type of bond has the ability to hold huge molecules, some of them a thousand molecules in length.
What are the dangers of going on a “no-fat” diet? ➢You can suffer from pain/inflammatory conditions due to a lack of cortisol. ➢Organ damage due to trauma. ➢Hormone imbalance – eradicate/compromise reproductive function •No periods in women. •Decrease in sex-drive. •Decrease in sperm count.
What are the dangers of going on a “no-fat” diet? ➢ Compromised cellular function – phospholipids needed for cell formation. Effects replacement of cells. ➢ Reduced lung or pulmonary function. ➢ No insulation for body – issue with temperative homeostasis → example – maintaining body heat.
What are the first two of the four levels of protein configuration? Primary Structure: Sequence of amino acids in the polypeptide chain. Shape → Strand/Chain. Protein is not functional at this level. Secondary Structure: The conformation of the chain created by hydrogen bonding between amino acids – shape → Helix. Prot
What are the last two of the four levels of protein configuration? Tertiary Structure: Three-dimensional structure of a protein. Protein is functional at this point. Quaternary Structure: The formation of a protein by the bonding together of two or more polypeptide chains. Example: Hemoglobin – the protein in red blo
What is protein denaturation? Protein denaturation is when a protein loses its natural conformation or unique three dimensional shape. Shape is what allows the protein to function.
What are three factors that cause protein denaturation? Three factors that cause protein denaturation: ➢Heat – For example: Fever – High temps start to denature proteins in the brain. Person can die. ➢Acids – A body’s normal pH is 7.4. If the pH goes below 7.4 or aboce 7.4 proteins denature ➢Salts
In what category of organic molecules do we find enzymes? We find enzymes in proteins.
Describe the Lock & Key Model. - Enzymes have complex structures - Regions in the structure act as active sites - Bind specific substrates - Catalyze specific chemical reaction - Produce specific products.
Describe how factors like pH, temperature and end product concentration can influence an enzyme’s activity. Factors like pH and heat can change the shape of an enzyme. The denaturing of an enzyme cannot be reversed. Therefore the substrates can no longer fit into the enzyme, the enzyme cannot function. The molecules will not react without the perfect enzyme.
What is a hydrolysis reaction? Where might it be performed in the body? Hydrolosis Reaction – Breaks apart larger molecules into smaller molecules. Hydro = Water, Lysis = Break Apart Hydrolysis reaction is used in the digestion of food.
What is a dehydration reaction? Dehydration Synthesis Reaction – Using monomers (single Unit molecules) to make polymers – larger molecules. -Removal of single molecule of water between 2 atoms to form a covalent bond
Where might dehydration reaction be performed in the body? It can be used in the body if it wanted to store carbohydrates in the form of glycogen. In order to do that it must bond glucose molecules together. In order to to this a hydrogen atom and a hydroxide atom must to removed form another.
What are the 3 functional classes of lipids? 1 .Triglycerides 2. Steroids 3. Phospholipids
What are triglycerides? What is their function? Common body fat. Composed of Glycerol + Fatty Acids. Function: Storage Lipid. Also protects organs – almost like a cushion.
What is the function of steroids? Function: Act as hormones (sex hormones, cholesterol, cortisol (anti-inflammatory).
What is the function of phospholipids? Function – Cell membrane made of phospholipids. Needed for cell formation.
Created by: joylomahan