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PMI A&P Ch 1

PMI Anatomy & Physiology Ch 1

anatomical position the body is in an erect, or standing, posture with arms at the sides and palms turned forward
bilateral symmetry the left and right sides of the body roughly mirror each other
supine body is lying face upward
prone body is lying face downward
superior toward the head, upper, or above
inferior toward the feet, lower, or below
anterior front, or in front of
posterior back, or in back of
ventral toward the belly
dorsal toward the back
medial toward the midline of the body
lateral toward the side of the body or away from its midline
proximal toward or nearest the trunk of the body or nearest the point or origin of one of its part
distal away from or farthest from the trunk or the point of origin of a body part
superficial nearer the surface
deep farther away from the body surface
sagittal plane a cut or section that runs along a lengthwise plane running from anterior to posterior; divides body or any of its parts into right and left sides
midsagittal plane divides the body into two equal halves
frontal plane/coronal plane a lengthwise plane running from side to side
transverse plane crosswise or horizontal plane divides the body or any of its parts into superior and inferior portions
oblique plane divides the body at an angle between the horizontal and vertical planes
cranial cavity brain
spinal cavity spinal cord
dorsal cavity cranial cavity and spinal cavity
ventral cavity thoracic cavity and abdominopelvic cavity
thoracic cavity mediastinum and pleural cavities
mediastinum heart, trachea, esophagus, thymus, and blood vessels
pleural cavities lungs
abdominopelvic cavity abdominal cavity and pelvic cavity
abdominal cavity liver, gallbladder, stomach, spleen, pancreas, small intestines, parts or large intestine
pelvic cavity lower (sigmoid) colon, rectum, urinary bladder, reproductive organs
abdominal region anterior torso below diaphragm
antebrachial region forearm
axillary region armpit
brachial region arm
buccal region cheek
carpal region wrist
cephalic region head
cervical region neck
cranial region skull
crural region leg
cubital region elbow (inside)
cutaneous skin (or body surface)
digital region fingers or toes
dorsal region back
facial region face
femoral region thigh
frontal region forehead
gluteal region buttock
inguinal region groin
lumbar region lower back between ribs and pelvis
mammary region breast
nasal region nose
occipital region back of lower skull
olecranal region back of elbow
orbital region OR ophthalmic region eyes
palmar region palm of hand
pedal region foot
pelvic region lower portion of torso
perineal region area (perineum) between anus and genitals
plantar region sole of foot
popliteal region area behind knee
supraclavicular region area above clavicle (collar bone)
tarsal region ankle
temporal region side of skull
thoracic region entire chest
umbilical region area around the naval or umbilicus
volar region palm or sole
zygomatic region upper cheek
axial portion head, neck, and torso or trunk
appendicular portion upper and lower extremities
atrophy degenerative process that results from lack of use
homeostasis the state of steady internal, physical, and chemical conditions maintained by living systems
feedback loop a highly complex and integrated communication control system
sensor part of a homeostatic feedback loop that detects changes in the physiological variable that is regulated by the feedback loop
control center part of a homeostatic feedback loop that integrates (puts together) set point (preprogrammed) information with actual sensed information about a physiological variable and then possibly sends out a signal to an effector to change the variable
effector any organ that has an effect on the body's internal environment in response to feedback; for example, voluntary and involuntary muscle, the heart, and glands
negative feedback homeostatic control system in which information feeding back to the control center causes the level of a variable to be changed in the direction opposite to that of the initial stimulus
positive feedback homeostatic control system in which information feeding back to the control center causes the level of a variable to be pushed farther in the direction of the original deviation, causing an amplification of the original stimulus; aka labor & blood clots
Created by: cdilello
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