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CSU BF Skinner

CSU Skinner Terminology

Continuous reinforcement Every time a specific action is performed the subject instantly and always receives a reinforcement. This method is hard to carry out, and the reinforced behavior is prone to extinction.
Fixed Interval reinforcement Reinforcement is set for a certain time duration. Times between reinforcements are not set, and often differ.
Fixed Ratio reinforcement Deals with a set amount of work needed to be completed before there is reinforcement.
Positive reinforcement When a behavior is followed by a favorable stimulus that increases the frequency of that behavior.
Negative reinforcement When a behavior is followed by the removal of an aversive stimulus thereby increasing that behavior's frequency.
Punishment When a behavior is followed by an aversive stimulus, such as introducing a shock or loud noise, resulting in a decrease in that behavior. Skinner did NOT advocate using punishment.
Extinction The removal of a reinforcer (lack of any consequence following a behavior) causing a behavior to decrease in frequency.
Intermittent Reinforcement When we reinforce a behavior only sometimes instead of every time it happens.
Fading A gradual change of a stimulus while the response stays about the same. Starts with a strong stimulus which is faded.(e.g., Teaching "sit" to a dog; start with a loud command. Slowly fade out loud command to a whisper.
Shaping successive approximation. Involves reinforcing successive, increasingly accurate approximations of a response desired by a trainer.
Chaining Involves linking discrete behaviors together in a series, The number of steps completed by the client increases sequentially over time as each step is mastered.
Time-Outs A form of withdrawing positive reinforcement by removing the individual from the reinforcing situation (NOT to be used as punishment).
Created by: OTTeacherLady