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BIOL 201


cell containing a membrane-enclosed nucleus with genetic material; plant and animal cells Eukaryotic cell
Cells such as bacteria that do not contain their genetic info w/in a membrane-enclosed nucleus Prokaryotic cell
Membrane that forms outer surface of cell and separates cell's contents from extracellular fluid Plasma membrane
membrane bound compartment, along with some particles and filaments that perform specialized functions in cell Cell Organelles
large membrane bound organelle that contains cell's DNA; primary function is the storage & transmission of the genetic info to the next generation of cells Nucleus
region of cell interior outside of nucleus Cytoplasm
Intracellular fluid that surrounds cell organelles and nucleus Cytosol
performs a variety of functions, but most universal is to provide a selective barrier to the passage of molecules Membranes
major component of cell membranes; this lipid is a Amphipathic molecule Phospholipids
protein embedded in membrane lipid layer; may span entire membrane or be located at only one side Integral membrane protein
hydrophilic proteins associated w/ cytoplasmic surface in the interior of the membrane Peripheral membrane proteins
integral protein that spans the plasma membrane; often acts as a receptor or ion channel Transmembrane protein
transmembrane protein in plasma membrane; binds to specific proteins in extracellular matrix and on adjacent cells to help organize cells into tissues Integrins
junction that holds two cells together; consists of plasma membranes junction of adjacent cells linked by fibers. hold adjacent cells firmly together in areas that are subject to considerable stretching, such as skin Desmosomes
membrane junction in which extracellular surfaces of the plasma membrane of 2 adjacent cells are joined together so that no extracellular space remains between them and restricts molecule diffusion through space between cells Tight junctions
membrane junction that creates protein channels linking cytosol of adjacent cells; allows ions and small molecules to flow between cytosols of the connected cells Gap junctions
Double membrane surrounding cell nucleus Nuclear envelope
opening in nuclear envelope through which molecular messengers pass between nucleus and cytoplasm Nuclear pores
particular steroid (lipid) molecule which makes up 25% of cell membranes Cholesterol
fine network of threads made up of DNA & nuclear proteins; principal component of chromosomes Chromatin
highly coiled, condensed form of chromatin formed in cell nucleus during mitosis and meiosis forming rod like bodies Chromosomes
densely staining nuclear region containing portions of DNA that code for ribosomal proteins Nucleolus
cells which has no nucleus or organelles Red blood cells
cells which have multiple nuclei Skeletal muscle cells
protein factories of a cell; site of protein synthesis from amino acids, may be either free in cytosol or attached to endoplasmic reticulum Ribosomes
cell organelle that consists of interconnected network of membrane-bound branch tubules & flattened sacs; 2 types, rough; with ribosomes attached to synthesize protein, smooth; (no ribosomes attached) synthesizes lipids & detoxifies certain molecules Endoplasmic reticulum
cell organelle consisting of flattened membranous sacs; usually near nucleus; processes newly synthesized proteins for secretion or distribution to other organelles Golgi apparatus
membrane bound vesicle produced by Golgi apparatus; contain protein to be secreted by cell Secretory vesicle
cellular taxis that sorts & distributes vesicles Endosomes
oval shaped body surrounded by "2" membranes; site of production of most ATP during cellular respiration Mitochondria
cell organelle containing digestive enzymes in a highly acidic solution that break down bacteria, debris from dead cells, & or damaged cell organelles Lysosomes
cell organelle that makes or disposes of hydrogen peroxide Peroxisome
cytoplasmic filametous network which maintains the cell shape and provide cell movements; includes 3 types of protein filaments; microfilaments(actin), intermediate filaments, microtubules (cilia) Cytoskeleton
hairlike extension on epithelial cells to propel material along epithelial surface Cilia
unit of hereditary information; portion of DNA containing information req'd to determine a protein's amino acid sequence Gene (20-25K genes in humans)
complete set of an organism's genes Genome
Gene code is Universal, there are "3" Stop Codes, BUT only "1" Start Code Universal genetic code for Methionine; A-U-G; "Start Code"
any change in base sequence of DNA that changes genetic information Mutation (3 types)
the process of transferring genetic information from DNA to RNA in the nucleus Transcription
the process that used the coded information in RNA to assemble a protein in the cytoplasm Translation
ribonucleic acid that transfers genetic information for a protein's amino acid sequence from DNA to ribosome Messenger RNA
enzyme that forms RNA by joining together appropriate nucleotides after they have base-paired to DNA RNA polymerase
specific sequence of DNA nucleotide at the beginning of gene that controls the initiation of gene Transcription; determines which of the paired strands of DNA is transcribed into RNA template strand Promoter
small intracellular peptide that attaches to proteins and directs them to proteasomes Ubiquitin
a complex of proteins capable of denaturing (unfolding) other proteins and assisting in protein degradation Proteasome
initial portion of newly synthesized protein (if protein is destined for secretion out of the cell) Signal sequence
any molecule or ion that binds to protein surface by non covalent bonds (reversible) Ligand
region of a protein to which a specific ligand binds Binding site
selectivity; ability of binding site to react with only one, or limited # of molecules Chemical Specificity
strength with which ligand binds to its binding site (can be high or low) Affinity
refers to the fraction of total binding sites that are occupied by ligands at any given time Saturation
ability of similar molecules to combine with the same binding site or receptor Competition
alteration of a protein's shape, and therefore its function, by the covalent binding of various chemical groups to it Covalent modulation (ex: Stereo's on/off switch)
addition of phosphate group to an organic molecule Phosphorylation
any enzyme that phosphorylates other proteins by transferring to them a phosphate group from ATP Protein kinase (ex: turns stereo on)
any enzyme that removes phosphate from protein Phosphoprotein phosphatase (ex: turns stereo off)
control of protein binding site preoperties by modulator molecules that bind to regions of the protein other than the binding site altered by them Allosteric modulation (ex: stereo's volume)
ligand that, by action at an allosteric regulatory site, alters properties of other binding sites on a protein and thus regulates its functional activity Modulator molecule
site on protein that interacts with modulator molecule; alters functional site properties Regulatory site
binding site on allosteric protein that when activated, carries out protein's physiological function; also called active site Functional site
chemical reactions that occur in living organisms Metabolism
the synthesis of organic molecules by cells Anabolism
the breakdown of organic molecules by cells Catabolism
chemical reaction in which energy release is small enough for reverse reaction to occur readily Reversible reaction
chemical reaction that releases large quantities of energy and results in almost all reactant molecules being converted to product Irreversible reaction
maxim that an increase in reactant concentration causes a chemical reaction to proceed in direction of product formation Law of mass action
protein molecule, acts as protein catalyst that accelerates specific chemical reactions but does not itself undergo net chemical change during reaction Enzyme (~2000 different enzymes in a typical cell)
substance that binds to a specific region of an enzyme & is necessary for the enzyme's activity Cofactor
sequence of enzyme-mediated chemical reactions by which molecules are synthesized and broken down in cells Metabolic pathway
metabolic pathway that breaks down glucose to 2 molecules of pyruvate(aerobically, with O2) or 2 molecules of lactate (anaerobically, lack of O2) Glycolysis
mitochondrial metabolic pathway that utilizes fragments derived from carbs, proteins, and fat breakdown, & produces CO2, H, & small amounts of ATP Krebs Cycle
Created by: jhanson79



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