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Module 3 PT 55

Term definitions

QuestionAnswer
aldosterone steroid hormone, secreted by the adrenal cortex, that controls mineral and water balance. Aldosterone acts on the kidney promoting the reabsorption of sodium ions (Na+) into the blood. Water follows the salt and this helps maintain normal blood pressure
antidiuretic hormone (ADH) hormone secreted by the hypothalamus which is stored in the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland. ADH is secreted when electrolyte concentration increases in the blood plasma (e.g. water transfer to muscles or loss due to sweat) and causes water excretio
direct gene activation the process where steroid hormone binds to specific positions on a cell’s DNA thereby activating certain genes. The result is mRNA synthesis within the nucleus. The mRNA enters the cell cytoplasm promoting protein synthesis which may be used as enzymes, t
down-regulation - the reduction in the number of hormone receptors on a cell which results in the cell being less sensitive to a particular hormone
epinephrine a non-steroidal hormone produced by the adrenal gland which is activated by the sympathetic nervous system. It increases your cardiac activity, metabolic rate, blood pressure, respiration and glucose generation. The level of epinephrine rises during stre
estrogens hormones secreted by the ovaries promoting the development of female secondary sex characteristics
glucagon a hormone produced in the anterior pituitary gland which increases during exercise and promotes muscle growth
growth hormone a pancreatic hormone that raises blood sugar by promoting conversion of glycogen to glucose in the liver
hemoconcentration - the name given to the effect of increased blood plasma concentration which could result from muscular activity and sweating
hormones chemicals secreted by the endocrine system which regulates the function of organs and tissues
insulin hormone produced in the pancreas that regulates the level of glucose in the blood
negative feedback system - type of control system which reacts to increases input stimulus by attempting to inhibit future stimulus action
non steroid hormones hormone based on either amino acids or proteins which are incapable of passing through the cell membrane and attach to the outside of the cell to perform their control functions
norepinephrine hormone, secreted by the adrenal gland and similar to epinephrine, that is the principal neurotransmitter of sympathetic nerve endings supplying the major organs and skin. It increases blood pressure and rate and depth of breathing, raises the level of bl
renin-angiotensin mechanism name given to control mechanism fot blood pressure provide by the kidney and rennin hormone
steroid hormones hormone based on cholesterol and are lipid soluble which are capable of passing through the cell membrane. They use direct gene activation to perform their control functions
target cells the cells which are controlled by a particular hormone
testosterone hormones secreted by the testes promoting the development of male secondary sex characteristics
up-regulation the increase in the number of hormone receptors on a cell which results in the cell being more sensitive to a particular hormone
aerobic interval training training characterized by repeated, short efforts (30s to 5 min) performed just under race pace but with brief (5-15s) rest periods between efforts
anaerobic training training which improves the efficiency of the anaerobic energy-producing system and can increase muscle strength with a better tolerance to acid-base imbalances resulting from lactate accumulation
continuous training training without rest periods
interval training repeated high intensity training bouts separated by short rest intervals
sprint training a form of anaerobic training involving very brief, intense training bouts
aerobic training training which improves the efficiency of the aerobic energy-producing system and can improve cardio respiratory endurance
Created by: surferbum