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NUHS Physiology 1


Chpt 2: The units of matter that form all chemical substances Atoms
Chpt 2: Each type of atom - carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, Chemical element
Chpt 2:Protons, neutrons, electrons Chemical properties of atoms - (3 subatomic particles)
Chpt 2: Center of the atom containing the protons and neutrons Atomic nucleus
Chpt 2: The specific number of protons distinguishing one type of atom from another Atomic numbers
Chpt 2: A scale indicating an atom's mass relative to the mass of other atoms Atomic weight
Chpt 2: Multiple forms of chemical elements differing in the number of neutrons they contain Isotopes
Chpt 2: The amount of an element, in grams, equal to the numerical value of its atomic weight Gram atomic mass (Note: One gram atomic mass of any element contains the same number of atoms)
Chpt 2: Minerals present in the body in extremely small quantities Trace element
Chpt 2: Two or more atoms bonded together Molecule
Chpt 2: The strongest chemical bond between two atoms Covalent bond
Chpt 2: The four most abundant atoms in the body Hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon
Chpt 2: Diagrammed molecule of water H-O-H
Chpt 2: Diagrammed molecule of carbon dioxide O=C=O
Chpt 2: An atom gains or loses one or more electrons, acquiring a net electric charge becomes an... Ion
Chpt 2: Ions that have a net positive charge Cations
Chpt 2: Ions that have a net negative charge Anions
Chpt 2: Ionic forms of mineral elements are collectively referred to as... Electrolytes
Chpt 2: Within molecules, two commonly encountered groups of atoms that undergo ionization Carboxyl group (-COOH) and Amino group (-NH2)
Chpt 2: An atom containing a single (unpaired) electron in it's outermost orbital Free radical
Chpt 2: Free radicals are unstable molecules that can react with other atoms through this process Oxidation
Chpt 2: A covalent chemical bond in which two electrons are shared unequally between two atoms; atom to which the electrons are drawn becomes slightly negative, while other atom becomes slightly positive Polar covalent bond
Chpt 2: Molecules containing significant numbers of polar bonds or ionized groups Polar molecules
Chpt 2: Molecules composed predominantly of electrically neutral bonds Non-polar molecules
Chpt 2: The electrical attraction between the hydrogen atom in a polar bond in one molecule and an oxygen or nitrogen atom in a polar bond of another molecule Hydrogen bond
Chpt 2: Out of every 100 molecules how many are water? 99
Chpt 2: The breaking of a chemical bond with addition of elements of water (-H and -OH) to the products formed Hydrolysis
Chpt 2: Type of chemical reaction in which two smaller molecules, such as amino acids, are joined to form a larger molecule; a single molecule of water is lost in the process Dehydration
Chpt 2: Substance dissolved in a liquid Solute
Chpt 2: Liquid (solvent) containing dissolved substances (solutes) Solution
Chpt 2: Strong electrical attraction between two oppositely charged ions Ionic bond
Chpt 2: Attracted to, and easily dissolved in, water Hydrophilic
Chpt 2: Not attracted to, and insoluble in, water Hydrophobic
Chpt 2: A molecule containing polar or ionized groups at one end and non-polar groups at the other Amphipathic
Chpt 2: Amount of material per unit volume of solution Concentration
Chpt 2: The ability of water to dissolve sodium chloride crystals depends upon... The electrical attraction between the polar water molecules and the charged sodium and chloride ions
Chpt 2: Sum of atomic weights of all atoms in molecule Molecular weight
Chpt 2: Weight of a substance in grams equal to its molecular weight Mol; 1 mol = 6x10^23 molecules
Chpt 2: Molecule capable of releasing a hydrogen ion; solution having an H+ concentration greater than that of pure water (that is, pH less than 7) Acid
Chpt 2: Any molecule that can combine with H+; (nucleotide) molecular ring of carbon and nitrogen that, with a phosphate group and a sugar, constitutes a nucleotide (that is a pH greater than 7) Base
Chpt 2: Acid that ionizes completely to form hydrogen ions and corresponding anions when dissolved in water Strong acid
Chpt 2: Acid whose molecules do not completely ionize to form hydrogen ions when dissolved in water Weak acid
Chpt 2: A solution that is neither basic not acidic (pH 7.0) Neutral solution
Chpt 2: Any solution having H+ concentration lower than that of pure water (that is, having a pH greater than 7) Alkaline solution
Chpt 2: Any solution with a pH less than 7.0 Acidic solution
Chpt 2: 4 Major categories of organic molecules in the body Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, Nucleic acids
Chpt 2: Large molecule formed by linking together smaller similar subunits Polymer
Chpt 2: Substance composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen according to general formula Cn(H2O)n, where n is any whole number Carbohydrate
Chpt 2: Carbohydrate consisting of one sugar molecule, which generally contains five or six carbon atoms Monosaccharide
Chpt 2: Major monosaccharide in the body; a six carbon sugar, C6H12O6; (aka: Blood sugar) Glucose
Chpt 2: Any five carbon monosaccharide Pentose
Chpt 2: A six carbon sugar, like glucose Hexose
Chpt 2: Carbohydrate molecule composed of two monosaccharides Disaccharide
Chpt 2: Disaccharide composed of glucose and fructose; (aka: table sugar) Sucrose
Chpt 2: Large carbohydrate formed by linking monosaccharide subunits together Polysaccharide
Chpt 2: Highly branched polysaccharide composed of glucose subunits; major carbohydrate storage form in the body Glycogen
Chpt 2: Molecule composed primarily of carbon and hydrogen and characterized by insolubility in water Lipid
Chpt 2: Carbon chain with carboxyl group at one end through which chain can be linked to glycerol to form triglycerides Fatty acid
Chpt 2: Fatty acid whose carbon atoms are all linked by single covalent bonds Saturated fatty acid
Chpt 2: Fatty acid containing one or more double bonds Unsaturated fatty acid
Chpt 2: Fatty acid that contains more than one double bond Polyunsaturated fatty acid
Chpt 2: A fatty acid, such as oleic acid, in which one carbon-carbon double bond is formed within the hydrocarbon chain due to the removal of two hydrogen atoms Monounsaturated fatty acid
Chpt 2: Chemically altered fatty acids Trans fatty acid
Chpt 2: Subclass of lipids composed of glycerol and three fatty acids; (aka: fat, neutral fat or acylglycerol Triglyceride
Chpt 2: Three-carbon carbohydrate; forms backbone of triglyceride Glycerol
Chpt 2: Lipid subclass similar to triglyceride except that a phosphate group and small nitrogen-containing molecule are attached to third hydroxyl group of glycerol; major component of cell membranes Phospholipid
Chpt 2: Lipid subclass; molecule consists of four interconnected carbon rings to which polar groups may be attached Steroid
Chpt 2: Large polymer consisting of one or more sequences of amino acid subunits joined by peptide bonds Protein
Chpt 2: Molecule containing amino group, carboxyl group, and side chain attached to a carbon atom; molecular subunit of protein Amino acid
Chpt 2: The variable portions of amino acids; may contain acidic or basic charged regions, or may be hydrophobic Amino acid side chain
Chpt 2: Polar covalent chemical bond joining the aminoand carboxyl groups of two amino acids; forms protein backbone Peptide bond
Chpt 2: Polymer consisting of amino acid subunits joined by peptide bonds Polypeptide
Chpt 2: Short polypeptide chain; by convention, having less than 50 amino acids Peptide
Chpt 2: Protein containing covalently linked carbohydrates Glycoprotein
Chpt 2: Two variables determine the primary structure of a polypeptide: 1.) The number of amino acids in the chain, and 2.) the specific type of amino acid at each position along the chain
Chpt 2: Three-dimensional shape of a molecule Conformation
Chpt 2: Weak attractive forces between non-polar regions of molecules van der Waals forces
Chpt 2: Coiled regions of proteins or DNA formed by hydrogen bonds Alpha helix
Chpt 2: A form of secondary protein structure determined by the relative hydrophobicity of amino acid side chains Beta sheet
Chpt 2: The helical and beta sheet structure of a protein Secondary protein structure
Chpt 2: The three-dimensional folded structure of a protein formed by hydrogen bonds, hydrophobic attractions, electrostatic interactions, and cysteine cross-bridges Tertiary protein structure
Chpt 2: Formed when two or more proteins associate with each other by hydrogen bonds and other forces; the individual proteins are then termed subunits Quaternary protein structure
Chpt 2: A protein in which two or more proteins are associated via hydrogen bonds, hydrophobic attractions, and other forces, to yield a single, larger protein Multimeric protein
Chpt 2: Any change in base sequence of DNA that changes genetic information Mutation
Chpt 2: Nucleotide polymer in which phosphate of one nucleotide is linked to the sugar of the adjacent one; stores and transmits genetic information; includes DNA and RNA Nucleic acid
Chpt 2: Nucleic acid that stores and transmits genetic information; consists of double strand of nucleotide subunits that contain deoxyribose Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
Chpt 2: Single-stranded nucleic acid involved in transcription of genetic information and translation of that information into a protein structure; contains the sugar ribose. Ribonucleic acid (RNA)
Chpt 2: Molecular subunit of nucleic acid; purine or pyrimidine base, sugar and phosphate Nucleotide
Chpt 2: Double-ring, nitrogen-containing subunit of nucleotide; adenine or guanine Purine
Chpt 2: Single-ring, nitrogen containing subunit of nucleotide; cytosine, thymine, or uracil Pyrimidine
Chpt 2: Major molecule that transfers energy from metabolism to cell functions during its breakdown to ADP and release of P1 Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
Chpt 2: Two-phosphate product of ATP breakdown Adenosine diphosphate (ADP)
Chpt 2: A molecule that loses an electron to a free radical... Becomes a free radical itself
Chpt 2: Of the bonding forces between atoms and molecules, which are the strongest? Covalent bonds are the strongest
Chpt 2: The process by which monomers of organic molecules are made into larger units... Results in the generation of water molecules
Created by: oneirishgirl



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