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CIT172 Chapter 3

Operating Systems Chapter 3 File Systems Key Terms

QuestionAnswer
auditing The process an OS uses to detect and log security-related events.
basic disk A disk that contains basic volumes, such as primary partitions, extended partitions, and logical drives.
binary search A programming technique for quickly locating an item in a sequential list.
buffer cache A region of memory that holds frequently used data values.
cluster A disk-storage unit that consists of a fixed number of sectors.
cluster address The location of a cluster on a hard drive.
compression A means of reducing the amount of space needed to store a block of data.
decompression The opposite of compression; to restore the contents of a compressed file to its original form.
defragmentation The process of writing parts of a file to contiguous sectors on a hard drive to speed access and retrieval.
dynamic disk A disk that contains dynamic volumes, such as simple volumes. Dynamic disk storage is divided into volumes instead of partitions.
encryption The process of encoding data to prevent unauthorized access.
extended partition A partition that can be separated into one or more logical drives.
FAT12 A file system, first used by DOS, that uses 12-bit sector addresses.
FAT16 A file system, first used by DOS, that uses 16-bit sector addresses.
FAT32 A file system, first used by Windows 95 OSR 2, that uses 32-bit sector addresses (of which 28 bits are currently used).
file allocation table (FAT) A data structure that DOS creates on a disk when it is formatted.
file system The overall structure in which files are named, stored, and organized. A file system consists of files, directories (or folders), and the information needed to locate and access these items.
Formatting Preparing a file system so that a disk can be used to store programs and data.
fragmentation The scattering of parts of the same file over different areas of a hard drive.
logical drive A drive created within an extended partition.
master file table (MFT) A special file that contains the attributes of each file created using NTFS. Used to locate a file on a hard drive.
NTFS (New Technology File System) The default file system for new installations of Windows XP; first used by Windows NT.
partition Logical storage area on a drive.
primary partition A portion of a drive that functions as a physically separate allocation unit.
quota A restriction on users’ ability to exceed limits placed on file system resources. It allows administrators to effectively manage disk space shared by multiple users.
sector The smallest unit of space on a disk; typically 512 bytes.
simple file sharing The default file-sharing mode for Windows XP in a workgroup environment.
storage area An area on a disk that can be allocated or formatted for a file system. It could be a primary partition, an extended partition, or a logical drive.
subdirectory A logical grouping of related files in Windows XP.
superblock Part of a UFS file system that contains an identifying number and other numbers that describe the file system’s geometry, statistics, and behavioral parameters.
swap file A hidden file on a hard drive that is used to hold parts of programs and data files that do not fit in memory. The OS moves data from the swap file to memory as needed and moves data out of memory to the swap file to make room for new data.
terabyte A measure for high-capacity storage. A terabyte is about 1 trillion bytes.
user groups A security object that consists of one or more user accounts. In Windows XP, a user can be a member of multiple user groups.
virtual file allocation table (VFAT) A file system first used by Windows 95, which supports long filenames.
volume A fixed amount of storage on a hard drive
Created by: Leisac