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CIT172 Chapter 2

Operating Systems Chapter 2 Software Components Key Terms

QuestionAnswer
Add Network Place Wizard A wizard in Windows XP that helps you locate and connect to shared folders on networked computers.
Add Printer Wizard A wizard used in Windows XP to make a printer available for your applications.
application A program that helps users perform tasks on a PC, such as creating a spreadsheet.
block device A device that moves information in blocks or groups of bytes instead of characters. An example is a disk drive.
bus driver A WDM driver for an I/O bus. It provides per-slot functionality that is device driven.
character device A device that transmits or receives information as streams of characters, one character at a time. An example is a keyboard.
command-line interface (CLI) A program you use to give commands to an operating system.
configuration editor A special program that helps you create or edit files that contain specific operating instructions for a PC.
context switch The process of storing and restoring the state of a processor (the context) so that multiple processes can share a single processor.
cooperative multitasking A form of multitasking in which each process controls the length of time it maintains exclusive control over the CPU.
DOS A generic term for any operating system that is loaded from disk devices when the system is started or restarted.
dynamic link library (DLL) A library of executable functions or data that can be used by a Windows XP application.
Emm386.sys An expanded memory manager that creates expanded memory using extended memory.
EMS (Expanded Memory Specification) A technique for adding memory to PCs to bypass the 640-KB limit on addressable memory.
Fast User Switching A feature in Windows XP that allows users to switch between user accounts on a single PC without quitting applications and logging out.
filter driver A WDM driver that filters the I/O requests for a device, a class of devices, or a bus.
Fluxbox A window manager that is available on Fedora Core 4.
freeware Software that is available free of charge for personal use. Freeware is frequently distributed on the Web.
function driver A WDM driver that drives an individual device.
GDI (graphical device interface) The display language interface for Microsoft Windows systems.
Ghostscript A suite of free software based on an interpreter of the Adobe PostScript and Portable Document Format (PDF) page description languages.
GNOME :The default desktop for Red Hat’s distribution of Fedora Core 4.
GNU General Public License A set of programs written by the Free Software Foundation to provide a free UNIX framework. (GNU stands for “GNU’s Not UNIX.”)
Himem.sys The device that manages the use of extended memory and the high memory area.
home directory A directory associated with a user account under Fedora Core 4.
KDE The default desktop for the SUSE distribution of Fedora Core 4.
kernel The core of an operating system. The kernel manages memory, files, and peripheral devices, as well as starting applications and allocating system resources.
microkernel A type of kernel that provides a smaller interface over the hardware. Minimal supervisor kernel mode services are provided; some services are executed in user mode.
Microsoft Windows Installer An installation and configuration service that ships as part of the Windows XP operating system.
monolithic kernel A type of kernel that provides a high-level virtual interface over the hardware. Kernel mode handles the memory management, the scheduler, and device
interfaces.
mount command A command used in Fedora Core 4 to connect to shared folders on networked computers. The command mounts the remote share.
multiprocessing The simultaneous execution of instructions by multiple processors within a single computer.
multitasking Concurrently running all active processes and threads on the PC.
multithreading Running several processes in rapid sequence (multitasking) within a single program.
My Documents A user’s home directory in Windows XP.
networking device A category used by Fedora Core 4 for network devices. The Fedora Core 4 kernel uses packets with these devices.
packet A unit of information transferred as a whole from one device to another on a network.
physical address A number that identifies an actual storage (memory) location in the physical memory on a computer.
PostScript A page description language developed and marketed by Adobe Systems.
preemptive multitasking A multitasking process in which the OS ensures that all active threads have the opportunity to execute. Preemptive multitasking prevents a single thread from monopolizing a processor.
protected mode An operating mode for Intel 80286 and higher processors that supports multitasking, data security, and virtual memory.
real mode An operating mode that allows the execution of only one program at a time. Programs can only access 1024 KB of memory and use a 16-bit data path.
Red Hat Package Manager (RPM) The Fedora Core 4 manager that provides installation services for applications.
Regedit An application that allows the user to edit the entries in the Registry.
Registry A central hierarchical database used by Windows XP to store information that is needed to configure the system for one or more users, applications, and hardware devices.
Samba A communications protocol used by Fedora Core 4 to support sharing of resources across a network.
Server Message Block (SMB) A communications protocol used by Windows-based operating systems to support sharing of resources across a network.
software components A collection of applications that make up and relate to the operating system.
standard output device Another term for a computer monitor.
Symmetric multiprocessing (SMP) A system that distributes tasks among CPUs using a load-sharing method.
system-config-printer A program used in Fedora Core 4 to set up your printer.
Task Manager An application used to track the progress of and provide necessary resources for separate tasks running on a computer.
text editor A program that allows a user to create or edit text files.
thread The basic unit of program execution. A process can have several threads running concurrently, each performing a different job.
top command A privileged Fedora Core 4 command used by a system administrator to view system information.
utility A program that performs system-related tasks and maintenance on the operating system.
virtual address A memory location that intervening hardware and software map to physical memory.
visudo command The command in Fedora Core 4 used to edit the /etc/sudoers file.
Windows Driver Model (WDM) A 32-bit architecture for creating device drivers for Windows.
XMS (Extended Memory Specification) A technique for using extended memory in real mode to store data (but not executable code).
Created by: Leisac