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Orthopedic Surgery

Surg Tech Orthopedic

Compact bone "cortical bone - hard, dense tissue of bne that surrounds the marrow cavity
Cancellous bone "spongy bone" - found at ends of bone and lining the medullary marrow canal
When the body detects low Ca, _______ are stimulated by _______ _______ to break down bone tissue and increase reabsorption of Ca from bones into blood osteoclasts; parathyroid hormone
Long bones bones of arm (humerus), legs (femur), hands, and feet (phalanges)
A partial fracture in a pediatric patient would be termed a ______ fracture greenstick
A complete fracture that penetrates the skin is a(n) _____ or open fracture. compound
If a fracture has more than two pieces, it usually occurs due to a direct crushing force and is called a _______ fracture. comminuted
The patient slid off the roof, compressing the ends of the tibia into each other, creating a(n) ________ fracture. impacted
Sacs that contain synovial fluid and act as lubrication to aid in joint movement bursa
Epiphyseal plate is aka the _____ _____ growth plate
Examples a flat bones ribs, scapula, sternum, cranial bones
Examples of irregular bones bones of skull and face and vertebrae
Sesamoid bones "round bones" - found within tendons ex: patella
3 general groups of joints immovable, slightly movable, freely movable
Immovable joints "synarthrosis" ex: suture lines of cranial bones
Slightly movable joints "amphiarthrosis" ex: cartilage that connects vertebrae and disk of cartilage (symphysis pubis)
Freely movable joints "diarthrosis" "synovial joints" ex: knee, elbow
Ball-and-socket joints widest ROM; movement in all planes ex: shoulder, hip
Condyloid joints allows for movement in only one plane with some lateral movement ex: TMJ
Gliding joints allow side-to-side and twisting movements ex: carpals of wrist
Hinge joints allows movement in only one plane ex: elbow
Pivot joints allow only a rotational movement around a central axis ex: proximal end of radius
Saddle joints allow movement in a variety of planes ex: trapezium of wrist with metacarpal of thumb
Osteochondritis dissecans "joint mice" small piece of cartilage and bone separate from end of a bone due to a loss of blood supply, and the pieces become lodged within the joint space, causing instability
Valgus outward turning
Varus inward turning
Genu valgum "knock-kneed" knees are in close position and space between ankles is inc
Genu varum "bow-legged" space between knees is abnormally inc and lower legs bow inwardly
Normal process of bone healing 1. inflammation 2. cellular proliferation 3. callus formation 4. ossification 5. remodeling
Inflammatory stage begins at time of injury and lasts about 2 days - hematoma is formed
Cellular proliferation begins approx 2nd day - macrophages debride area and allow for formation of a fibrin mesh that seals the approximated edges of fracture site
Callus formation lasts 3-4 weeks - soft tissue growth continues and bone fragments grow toward one another osteoblasts form a matrix of collagen that invades the periosteal callus, bridging the fracture site and uniting the two ends of bone
Ossification stage beings after 2-3 weeks and can last 3-4 months - matrix of osteoblasts calcifies
Remodeling stage maintenance state of normal bone
Distraction bone fragments that are separated so that bone contact does not occur
Delayed union inc in healing time for fractures
Nounion when fractured bone ends do not unite
Malunion when the fracture heals in a position that does not resemble the original anatomical form of the bone and alters the mechanical function of the bone
2 most frequently used types of casting material fiberglass and plaster
When is a fracture table used hip fracture, femoral nailing
Unaffected leg is placed in a boot that's (abducted/adducted) to allow for c-arm to be positioned over the injured site abducted
What is used to exsanguinate an extremity? Ace or Esmarch bandage
Tourniquets should not be applied for longer than ______ for upper extremities or ________ for lower extremities 1 hr; 1.5 hrs
3 types of traction manual, skin, or skeletal
CPM continuous passive ROM machine
What is a CPM used for? aids in dec pain and swelling at operative site
Type of suture used to repair ligaments, tendons, muscles, and bone nonabsorbable
Type of suture used to close periosteum absorbable
Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) bone cement - used during total joint arthroplasty
Doubly curved bone that acts as a brace for scapula clavicle
Where does the clavicle articulate? medially with manubrium and laterally with acromion process of scapula
AC joint acromioclavicular joint - articulation between lateral end of clavicle and flattened, small process at border of acromion
Why is a shoulder scope performed? removal of loose bodies, bursectomy, rotator cuff repairs, labral tear repair, and repair of impingement syndrome (dec ROM)
What tendon is examined for injury during a shoulder scope? biceps tendon
Biggest complication of acromioplasty loss of anterior deltoid function caused by axillary nerve injury or detachment of deltoid from acromion (biceps tendon rupture)
Primary reason for shoulder arthroplasty chronic pain from glenohumeral arthritis with significant loss of ROM and joint function
Complications of arthropalsty narrowing of joint space, osteophyte formation, and cysts
Screw with a wider thread and wider-spaced threads used in epiphyseal bone cancellous screw
Screw with closely spaced shallow threads for dense bone found in the diaphysis cortical screw
Screw that is partially threaded to compress bone between the screw head and the distal threads lag screw
Screw with hollow central shaft, usually inserted over a guide wire or pin cannulated screw
Pin segments in larger diameters used for skeletal traction or as guide pin for screws Steinmen
Placed in the intramedullary shaft for fractures of long bones—early ambulation pins or rods
Characterizations of total knee arthroscopy unicompartmental, bicompartmental, tricompartmental
3 bones of pelvis ilium, ischium, pubis
Which nerve is identified and protected during a THA? sciatic
Antegrade come from above (periformus muscle entry)
Retrograde come from below ( intercondylar notch entry)
Instrument required when using cannulated nails guide rod
What tendon passes down bilaterally to the patella and inserts on the upper tibia? proximal quadriceps femoris
Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) attached to posterior midline surface of tibia and passes anteriorly, attaching to medial condyle of femur
Purpose of PCL prevents femur from sliding anteriorly on tibia
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) attached to posterior lateral condyle of femur and to a notch in the midline of tibia between tibial condyles
Purpose of ACL prevents hyperextension of knee, limits the medial rotation of femur
Larger and stronger bone of lower leg that holds body weight tibia "shinbone"
Distally, the tibia articulates with the _____ bone to form part of the ankle joint talus
Laterally, the tibia articulates with ____ fibula
Arthrodesis is the fusion of which joints? subtalar, calcaneocuboid, talonavicular joints
The Achilles' tendon connects the _____, _____, and _____ muscles to the ______. gastrocnemius, soleus, plantaris; calcaneus
Thompson "squeeze test" calf is squeezed just distal to its maximal diameter while pt is prone to cause plantar flexion of ankle joint - test is + for tendon rupture when no flexion occurs
Hallux valgus bunion
Techniques used to treat hallux valgus Aken, Chevron, McKeever, Keller, McBride
Created by: fyrevalkyrie
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