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CIT132 Chapter 3

Key Terms from Chapter 3 LAN

QuestionAnswer
1 gigabit per second (Gbps) 1,000,000,000 bits per second.
1 kilobit per second (Kbps) 1000 bits per second.
1 megabit per second (Mbps) 1,000,000 bits per second.
1 terabit per second (Tbps) - 1,000,000,000,000 bits per second.
100 block Part of an organization’s cross-connect facilities, a type of punch-down block designed to terminate Cat 5 or better twisted pair wires.
100 pair wire UTP supplied by a telecommunications carrier that contains 100 wire pairs.
25 pair wire UTP supplied by a telecommunications carrier that contains 25 wire pairs.
66 block Part of an organization’s cross-connect facilities, a type of punch-down block used for many years to terminate telephone circuits. It does not meet Cat 5 or better standards, and so it is infrequently used on data networks.
alien cross talk EMI interference induced on one cable by signals traveling over a nearby cable.
AM (amplitude modulation) A modulation technique in which the amplitude of the carrier signal is modified by the application of a data signal.
amplifier A device that boosts, or strengthens, an analog signal.
amplitude A measure of a signal’s strength.
analog A signal that uses variable voltage to create continuous waves, resulting in an inexact transmission.
attenuation The extent to which a signal has weakened after traveling a given distance.
AWG (American Wire Gauge) A standard rating that indicates the diameter of a wire, such as the conducting core of a coaxial cable.
bandwidth A measure of the difference between the highest and lowest frequencies that a medium can transmit.
baseband A form of transmission in which digital signals are sent through direct current pulses applied to a wire. can transmit only one signal, or one channel, at a time. Every device on a baseband system shares a single channel.
bend radius The radius of the maximum arc into which you can loop a cable before you will cause data transmission errors. Generally, a twisted pair cable’s bend radius is equal to or greater than four times the diameter of the cable.
binary A system founded on using 1s and 0s to encode information.
bit (binary digit) A bit equals a single pulse in the digital encoding system. It may have only one of two values: 0 or 1.
BNC (Bayonet Neill-Concelman, or British Naval Connector) A standard for coaxial cable connectors named after its coupling method and its inventors.
BNC connector A coaxial cable connector type that uses a twist-and-lock (or bayonet) style of coupling. It may be used with several coaxial cable types, including RG-6 and RG-59.
braiding A braided metal shielding used to insulate some types of coaxial cable.
broadband A form of transmission in which signals are modulated as radiofrequency analog pulses with different frequency ranges. The use of multiple frequencies enables a broadband system to operate over several channels
broadcast A transmission that involves one transmitter and multiple, undefined receivers.
byte Eight bits of information. In a digital signaling system, broadly speaking, one byte carries one piece of information.
cable plant The hardware that constitutes the enterprise-wide cabling system.
Cat Abbreviation for the word category when describing a type of twisted pair cable. For example, Category 3 unshielded twisted pair cable may also be called Cat 3.
Cat 3 (Category 3) A form of UTP that contains four wire pairs and can carry up to 10 Mbps, with a possible bandwidth of 16 MHz. Cat 3 has typically been used for 10-Mbps Ethernet or 4-Mbps token ring networks.
Cat 4 (Category 4) A form of UTP that contains four wire pairs and can support up to 16-Mbps throughput.
Cat 5 (Category 5) A form of UTP that contains four wire pairs and supports up to 100-Mbps throughput and a 100-MHz signal rate.
Cat 5e (Enhanced Category 5) A higher-grade version of Cat 5 wiring that contains high quality copper, offers a high twist ratio, and uses advanced methods for reducing cross talk.
Cat 6 (Category 6) A twisted pair cable that contains four wire pairs, each wrapped in foil insulation.
Cat 6e (Enhanced Category 6) A higher-grade version of Cat 6 wiring that further reduces attenuation and cross talk and allows for potentially exceeding traditional network segment length limits.
Cat 7 (Category 7) A twisted pair cable that contains multiple wire pairs, each separately shielded then surrounded by another layer of shielding within the jacket.
channel A distinct communication path between two or more nodes, much as if a lane is a distinct transportation path on a freeway. Channels may be separated either logically (as in multiplexing) or physically (as when they are carried by separate wires).
cladding The glass or plastic shield around the core of a fiber-optic cable. Cladding reflects light back to the core in patterns that vary depending on the transmission mode.
coaxial cable A type of cable that consists of a central metal conducting core, made of copper, surrounded by an insulator, a braided metal shielding,and the sheath or jacket. Coaxial cable, called “coax” for short, was the foundation for Ethernet networks
conduit The pipeline used to contain and protect cabling. Conduit is usually made from metal.
connectors The pieces of hardware that connect the wire to the network device, be it a file server, workstation, switch, or printer.
core The central component of a cable designed to carry a signal. The core of a fiber-optic cable, for example, consists of one or several glass or plastic fibers. The core of a coaxial copper cable consists of one large or several small strands of copper.
crossover cable A twisted pair patch cable in which the termination locations of the transmit and receive wires on one end of the cable are reversed.
cross talk A type of interference caused by signals traveling on nearby wire pairs infringing on another pair’s signal.
DB-9 connector A type of connector with nine pins that’s commonly used in serial communication that conforms to the RS-232 standard.
DB-25 connector A type of connector with 25 pins that’s commonly used in serial communication that conforms to the RS-232 standard.
DCE (data circuit-terminating equipment) A device, such as a multiplexer or modem, that processes signals. DCE supplies a clock signal to synchronize transmission between DTE and DCE.
demarcation point (demarc) The point of division between a telecommunications service carrier’s network and a building’s internal network.
demultiplexer (demux) A device that separates multiplexed signals once they are received and regenerates them in their original form.
digital As opposed to analog signals, digital signals are composed of pulses that can have a value of only 1 or 0.
DTE (data terminal equipment) Any end-user device, such as a workstation, terminal (essentially a monitor with little or no independent data-processing capability), or a console (for example, the user interface for a router).
DWDM (dense wavelength division multiplexing) A multiplexing technique used over single-mode or multimode fiber-optic cable in which each signal is assigned a different wavelength for its carrier wave.
EMI (electromagnetic interference) A type of interference that may be caused by motors, power lines, televisions, copiers, fluorescent lights, or other sources of electrical activity.
entrance facilities The facilities necessary for a service provider (whether it is a local phone company, Internet service provider, or long-distance carrier) to connect with another organization’s LAN or WAN.
F-type connector A connector used to terminate coaxial cable used for transmitting television and broadband cable signals.
FDM (frequency division multiplexing) A type of multiplexing that assigns a unique frequency band to each communications subchannel. Signals are modulated with different carrier frequencies, then multiplexed to simultaneously travel over a single channel.
ferrule A short tube within a fiber-optic cable connector that encircles the fiber strand and keeps it properly aligned.
fiber-optic cable A form of cable that contains one or several glass or plastic fibers in its core. Data is transmitted via pulsing light sent from a laser or light-emitting diode (LED) higher throughput than copper-based cables. They may be single-mode or multimode
FM (frequency modulation) A method of data modulation in which the frequency of the carrier signal is modified by the application of the data signal.
frequency The number of times that a signal’s amplitude changes over a fixed period of time, expressed in cycles per second, or hertz (Hz).
full-duplex A type of transmission in which signals may travel in both directions over a medium simultaneously. May also be called, simply, “duplex.”
half-duplex A type of transmission in which signals may travel in both directions over a medium, but in only one direction at a time.
hertz (Hz) A measure of frequency equivalent to the number of amplitude cycles per second.
IDF (intermediate distribution frame) A junction point between the MDF and concentrations of fewer connections- for example, those that terminate in a telecommunications closet.
impedance The resistance that contributes to controlling an electrical signal. Impedance is measured in ohms.
latency The delay between the transmission of a signal and its receipt.
LC (local connector) A connector used with single-mode or multimode fiber-optic cable.
MDF (main distribution frame) Also known as the main cross-connect, the first point of interconnection between an organization’s LAN or WAN and a service provider’s facility.
media converter A device that enables networks or segments using different media to interconnect and exchange signals.
MMF (multimode fiber) A type of fiber-optic cable that contains a core with a diameter between 50 and 100 microns, through which many pulses of light generated by a light emitting diode (LED) travel at different angles.
modem A device that modulates analog signals into digital signals at the transmitting end for transmission over telephone lines, and demodulates digital signals into analog signals at the receiving end.
modulation A technique for formatting signals in which one property of a simple carrier wave is modified by the addition of a data signal during transmission.
MT-RJ (mechanical transfer-registered jack) A connector used with single-mode or multimode fiber-optic cable.
multiplexer (mux) A device that separates a medium into multiple channels and issues signals to each of those subchannels.
multiplexing A form of transmission that allows multiple signals to travel simultaneously over one medium.
NEXT (near end cross talk) Cross talk, or the impingement of the signal carried by one wire onto a nearby wire, that occurs between wire pairs near the source of a signal.
noise The unwanted signals, or interference, from sources near network cabling, such as electrical motors, power lines, and radar.
nonbroadcast point-to-multipoint transmission A communications arrangement in which a single transmitter issues signals to multiple, defined recipients.
optical loss The degradation of a light signal on a fiber-optic network.
overhead The nondata information that must accompany data in order for a signal to be properly routed and interpreted by the network.
patch cable A relatively short section (usually between 3 and 25 feet) of cabling with connectors on both ends.
patch panel A wall-mounted panel of data receptors into which cross-connect patch cables from the punch-down block are inserted.
phase A point or stage in a wave’s progress over time.
plenum The area above the ceiling tile or below the subfloor in a building.
point-to-point A data transmission that involves one transmitter and one receiver.
point-to-multipoint A communications arrangement in which one transmitter issues signals to multiple receivers. The receivers may be undefined, as in a broadcast transmission, or defined, as in a nonbroadcast transmission.
populated segment A network segment that contains end nodes, such as workstations.
punch-down block A panel of data receptors into which twisted pair wire is inserted, or punched down, to complete a circuit.
regeneration The process of retransmitting a digital signal. Regeneration, unlike amplification, repeats the pure signal, with none of the noise it has accumulated.
repeater A device used to regenerate a signal.
RFI (radiofrequency interference) A kind of interference that may be generated by broadcast signals from radio or TV towers.
RG-6 A type of coaxial cable with an impedance of 75 ohms and that contains an 18 AWG core conductor. RG-6 is used for television, satellite, and broadband cable connections.
RG-8 A type of coaxial cable characterized by a 50-ohm impedance and a 10 AWG core. RG-8 provided the medium for the first Ethernet networks, which followed the now obsolete 10Base-5 standard.
RG-58 A type of coaxial cable characterized by a 50-ohm impedance and a 24 AWG core. RG-58 was a popular medium for Ethernet LANs in the 1980s, used for the now-obsolete 10Base-2 standard.
RG-59 A type of coaxial cable characterized by a 75-ohm impedance and a 20 or 22 AWG core, usually made of braided copper. Less expensive but suffering greater attenuation than the more common RG-6 coax, RG-59 is used for relatively short connections.
RJ-11 (registered jack 11) The standard connector used with unshielded twisted pair cabling (usually Cat 3 or Level 1) to connect analog telephones.
RJ-45 (registered jack 45) The standard connector used with shielded twisted pair and unshielded twisted pair cabling.
rollover cable A type of cable in which the terminations on one end are exactly the reverse of the terminations on the other end. It is used for serial connections between routers and consoles or other interfaces.
RS-232 (Recommended Standard 232) A Physical layer standard for serial communications, as defined by EIA/TIA.
RTT (round trip time) The length of time it takes for a packet to go from sender to receiver, then back from receiver to sender. RTT is usually measured in milliseconds.
SC (subscriber connector or standard connector) A connector used with single-mode or multimode fiber-optic cable.
serial A style of data transmission in which the pulses that represent bits follow one another along a single transmission line. In other words, they are issued sequentially, not simultaneously.
serial cable A cable, such as an RS-232 type, that permits serial data transmission.
sheath The outer cover, or jacket, of a cable.
simplex A type of transmission in which signals may travel in only one direction over a medium.
SMF (single-mode fiber) A type of fiber-optic cable with a narrow core that carries light pulses along a single path data from one end of the cable to the other end. Data can be transmitted faster and for longer distances
ST (straight tip) A connector used with single-mode or multimode fiber-optic cable.
statistical multiplexing A method of multiplexing in which each node on a network is assigned a separate time slot for transmission, based on the node’s priority and need.
STP (shielded twisted pair) A type of cable containing twisted-wire pairs that are not only individually insulated, but also surrounded by a shielding made of a metallic substance such as foil.
straight-through cable A twisted pair patch cable in which the wire terminations in both connectors follow the same scheme.
structured cabling A method for uniform, enterprise-wide, multivendor cabling systems specified by the TIA/EIA 568 Commercial Building Wiring Standard. Structured cabling is based on a hierarchical design using a high-speed backbone.
subchannel One of many distinct communication paths established when a channel is multiplexed or modulated.
TDM (time division multiplexing) A method of multiplexing that assigns a time slot in the flow of communications to every node on the network and, in that time slot, carries data from that node.
telecommunications closet Also known as a “telco room,” the space that contains connectivity for groups of workstations in a defined area, plus cross-connections to IDFs
Thicknet An IEEE Physical layer standard for achieving a maximum of 10-Mbps throughput over coaxial copper cable. Thicknet is also known as 10Base-5. Its maximum segment length is 500 meters, and it relies on a bus topology.
Thinnet An IEEE Physical layer standard for achieving 10-Mbps throughput over coaxial copper cable. Thinnet is also known as 10Base-2. Its maximum segment length is 185 meters, and it relies on a bus topology.
throughput The amount of data that a medium can transmit during a given period of time. Throughput is usually measured in megabits (1,000,000 bits) per second, or Mbps. The physical nature of every transmission media determines its potential throughput.
transceiver A device that transmits and receives signals.
transmission In networking, the application of data signals to a medium or the progress of data signals over a medium from one point to another.
transmit To issue signals to the network medium.
twist ratio The number of twists per meter or foot in a twisted pair cable.
twisted pair A type of cable similar to telephone wiring that consists of color-coded pairs of insulated copper wires, each with a diameter of 0.4 to 0.8 mm, twisted around each other and encased in plastic coating.
unpopulated segment A network segment that does not contain end nodes, such as workstations. Unpopulated segments are also called link segments.
UTP (unshielded twisted pair) A type of cabling that consists of one or more insulated wire pairs encased in a plastic sheath.
vertical cross-connect Part of a network’s backbone that supplies connectivity between a building’s floors. For example, vertical cross-connects might connect an MDF and an IDF or IDFs and telecommunications closets within a building.
volt The measurement used to describe the degree of pressure an electrical current exerts on a conductor.
voltage The pressure (sometimes informally referred to as the strength) of an electrical current.
wavelength The distance between corresponding points on a wave’s cycle. Wavelength is inversely proportional to frequency.
WDM (wavelength division multiplexing) A multiplexing technique in which each signal on a fiber-optic cable is assigned a different wavelength, which equates to its own subchannel.
Created by: Leisac