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CIT132 Chapter 1

Key Terms for Chapter 1 - LAN

QuestionAnswer
A+ The professional certification established by CompTIA that verifies knowledge about PC operation, repair, and management.
address A number that uniquely identifies each workstation and device on a network. Without unique addresses, computers on the network could not reliably communicate.
address management The process of centrally administering a finite number of network addresses for an entire LAN. Usually this task can be accomplished without touching the client workstations.
addressing The scheme for assigning a unique identifying number to every workstation and device on the network. The type of addressing used on a network depends on its protocols and network operating system.
asset management The process of collecting and storing data on the number and types of software and hardware assets in an organization’s network. The data collection is automated by electronically examining each network client from a server.
backbone The part of a network to which segments and significant shared devices (such as routers, switches, and servers) connect. “a network of networks,” because of its role in interconnecting smaller parts of a LAN or WAN.
backing up The process of copying critical data files to a secure storage area. Often, backups are performed according to a formulaic schedule.
CCIE (Cisco Certified Internetwork Expert) An elite certification that recognizes expert-level installation, configuration, management, and troubleshooting skills on networks that use a range of Cisco Systems’ devices.
CCNA (Cisco Certified Network Associate) A professional certification that attests to one’s skills in installing, configuring, maintaining, and troubleshooting medium-sized networks that use Cisco Systems’ switches and routers.
certification The process of mastering material pertaining to a particular hardware system, operating system, programming language, or other software program, then proving your mastery by passing a series of exams.
client A computer on the network that requests resources or services from another computer on a network. In some cases, a client could also act as a server.
client/server architecture A network design in which clients (typically desktop or laptop computers) use a centrally administered server to share data, data storage space, and devices.
client/server network A network that uses centrally administered computers, known as servers, to enable resource sharing for and to facilitate communication between the other computers on the network.
CompTIA (Computing Technology Industry Association) An association of computer resellers, manufacturers, and training companies that sets industry-wide standards for computer professionals. CompTIA established and sponsors the A+ and Network+ (Net+) certifications.
connectivity device One of several types of specialized devices that allows two or more networks or multiple parts of one network to connect and exchange data.
convergence The use of data networks to carry voice (or telephone), video, and other communications services in addition to data.
data packet A discrete unit of information sent from one node on a network to another.
file server A specialized server that enables clients to share applications and data across the network.
file services The functions of a file server that allow users to share data files, applications, and storage areas.
host A computer that enables resource sharing by other computers on the same network.
Internet A complex WAN that connects LANs and clients around the globe.
Internet services The services that enable a network to communicate with the Internet, including World Wide Web servers and browsers, file transfer capabilities, Internet addressing schemes, security filters, and a means for directly logging on to other computers.
LAN (local area network) A network of computers and other devices that is confined to a relatively small space, such as one building or even one office.
license tracking The process of determining the number of copies of a single application that are currently in use on the network and whether the number in use exceeds the authorized number of licenses.
load balancing The process of distributing data transfer activity evenly across a network so that no single device is overwhelmed.
mail server A server that manages the storage and transfer of e-mail messages.
mail services The network services that manage the storage and transfer of e-mail between users on a network.
MAN (metropolitan area network) A network that is larger than a LAN, typically connecting clients and servers from multiple buildings, but within a limited geographic area. For example, a MAN could connect multiple city government buildings around a city’s center.
management services The network services that centrally administer and simplify complicated management tasks on the network. Examples of management services include license tracking, security auditing, asset management.
MCSE (Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer) A professional certification established by Microsoft that demonstrates in-depth knowledge about Microsoft products.
motherboard The main circuit board that controls a computer.
network A group of computers and other devices (such as printers) that are connected by and can exchange data via some type of transmission media, such as a cable, a wire, or the atmosphere.
Network+ (Net+) The professional certification established by CompTIA that verifies broad, vendor-independent networking technology skills, such as an understanding of protocols, topologies, networking hardware, and network troubleshooting.
network services The functions provided by a network.
NIC (network interface card) The device that enables a workstation to connect to the network and communicate with other computers. NICs are also called network adapters.
node A computer or other device connected to a network, which has a unique address and is capable of sending or receiving data.
NOS (network operating system) The software that runs on a server and enables the server to manage data, users, groups, security, applications, and other networking functions. The most popular network operating systems are Windows Server 2003, UNIX, Linux, and Novell NetWare.
P2P network See peer-to-peer network.
peer-to-peer network A network in which every computer can communicate directly with every other computer. By default, no computer on a peer-to-peer network has more authority than another.
print services The network service that allows printers to be shared by several users on a network.
protocol A standard method or format for communication between network devices. Protocols ensure that data are transferred whole, in sequence, and without error from one node on the network to another.
remote access server A server that runs communications services that enable remote users to log on to a network. Also known as an access server.
remote user A person working on a computer on a different network or in a different geographical location from the LAN’s server.
resources The devices, data, and data storage space provided by a computer, whether stand-alone or shared.
restore The process of retrieving files from a backup. It is necessary to restore files if the original files are lost or deleted.
scalable The property of a network that allows you to add nodes or increase its size easily.
security auditing The process of evaluating security measures currently in place on a network and notifying the network administrator if a security breach occurs.
segment A part of a network. Usually, a segment is composed of a group of nodes that share the same communications channel for all their traffic.
server A computer on the network that manages shared resources. Servers usually have more processing power, memory, and hard disk space than clients and run NOS.
sneakernet A way of exchanging data between computers that are not connected on a network. Sneakernet requires that data be copied from a computer to a removable storage device such as a floppy disk.
soft skills The skills such as customer relations, leadership ability, and dependability, which are not easily measured, but are nevertheless important in a networking career.
software distribution The process of automatically transferring a data file or installing a software application from the server to a client on the network.
spam An unsolicited, unwanted e-mail.
stand-alone computer A computer that uses applications and data only from its local disks and that is not connected to a network.
topology The physical layout of computers on a network.
traffic The data transmission and processing activity taking place on a computer network at any given time.
traffic monitoring The process of determining how much data transfer activity is taking place on a network or network segment and notifying administrators when a segment becomes overloaded.
transmission media The means through which data are transmitted and received. Transmission media may be physical, such as wire or cable, or atmospheric (wireless), such as radio waves.
unified communications The centralized management of multiple types of network-based communications, such as voice, video, fax, and messaging services.
user A person who uses a computer.
WAN (wide area network) A network that spans a long distance and connects two or more LANs.
Web server A computer that manages Web site services, such as supplying a Web page to multiple users on demand.
workstation A computer that runs a desktop operating system and connects to a network.
Created by: Leisac