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Clin Med 207: GI

Substernal burning sensation, bitter tast, 30-60mins post meals, worse when lying down Heartburn
Treatment for heartburn Antacids, sleep with extra pillows
Problem transferring food bolus from oropharynx to upper esophagus (voluntary swallowing) Oropharyngeal Dysphagia
Neurological problem, swallowing followed by immediate cough/regurgitation, liquids are more a problem, "swallow study" to diagnose Oropharyngeal Dysphagia
Problem with passage of food down esophagus, constant, progressive,difficulty with solids (mechanical), episodic difficulty with solids/liquids (motility) Esophageal Dysphagia
Mechanical esophageal dysphagia is caused by Schatzki's ring (mucosal ring), peptic stricture, narrowing, or cancer
Motility esophageal dysphia is caused by achalasia (incomplete relaxation of sphincter), esophageal spasm, and scleroderma
Epigastric fullness, discomfort after meals, nausea, belching Dyspepsia
Sharp substernal pain on swallowing with severe erosion/inflammation of esophageal mucosa Odynophagia
Causes of odynophagia infection, caustic injury, pills stuck, esophagitis
Direct visualization and biopsy using fibroscopic instrument with light and camera. Pt must be under anesthesia. EGD
EGD is the study of choice for evaluating ______, _______, and ________ Persistent heartburn, Odynophagia, and structural abnormality on barium
Contrast-enhanced radiographic study Barium Esophagography
Test of choice for esophageal dysphagia due to motility problem Barium Esophagography
Test of choice for esophageal dysphagia due to mechanical problem EGD
Small catheter that is passed nasally into esophagus. Records pressure at upper sphincter, body and lower sphincter Esophageal Manometry
Measures esophageal exposure to gastric acid in patients with persistent symptoms of GERD, but normal EGD 24-hour Esophageal pH recording
Inappropriate transient relaxation/opening of lower esophageal sphincter GERD
Clinical features of GERD Heartburn, Regurgitation, Dysphagia
Premalignant complication of chronic GERD that increases risk of adenocarcinoma by 30x Barrett's Esophagus
Treatment of GERD Antacids, OTC histamine H2 blockers, Proton Pump Inhibitors
Most common esophageal cancer in US Adenocarcinoma
A defect in the mucosa of the stomach or duodenum. Normal defensive factors are overwhelmed by acid. Peptic Ulcer Disease
What type of peptic ulcer is more comon in 30-55 age group? Duodenal Ulcers
What type of peptic ulcer is more common in 55-70 age group? Gastric Ulcers
Infection that is the #1 cause of Peptic Ulcer Disease Helicobacter pylori
What NSAID is the most ulcerogenic? Aspirin
Clinical features of a stomach ulcer Epigastric pain, nausea, vomitting, middle of the night symptoms
Diets high in __________ can cause gastric cancer Dried, smoked and salted food (Japanese)AND nitrates
IBD is divided into what two groups? Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease
Patchy, transmural inflammation involving any segment of the GI tract Crohn's Disease
Crohn's disease in all layers of the bowel wall is _____ transmural
A colonic mucousal inflammation Ulcerative Colitis
In 70% of cases, Ulcerative Colitis is positive for ________ P-ANCA
Hallmark Sign of Ulcerative Colitis Bloody Diarrhea
Which form of IBD looks worse? Crohn's Disease
Which form of IBD is more fatal? Ulcerative Colitis
A complication of ulcerative colitis where the colon shuts down and there is lack of defacation for weeks Toxic Megacolon
What ocular pathology is IBD linked to? Uveitis
Most common gastrointestinal cancer Colon Cancer
Risk factors for colon cancer Over 50, family hx, long standing ulcerative colitis, FAP
Results of lab test for Acute Pancreatitis elevated WBCs, amylase and lipasealc
Chronic Pancreatitis is most commonly due to ______ alcholol
Clinical triad of chronic pancreatitis pain, exocrine insufficiency, and endocrine insufficiency
Number one cause of Pancreatic Cancer Smoking
Best way to diagnose Pancreatic Cancer CT scan
Number one cause of Cirrhosis Alcohol
Enlargement of abdomen do to fluid accumulation from blockage of liver Ascite
3 Hereditary Liver Diseases Wilson's Disease, Hemochromatosis, Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency
Caused by impaired excretion of copper into bile Wilson's Disease
Hallmark of Wilson's Disease Low ceruloplasmin level and high urinary copper
Increased intestinal iron absorption Hemochromatosis
Causes iron deposition in tissues leading to fibrosis and organ damage Hemochromatosis
Created by: LaurenLofdahl