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Med Surg-Sickle Cell

Sickle Cell - EX#2

Populations at Risk African, Caribbean, Mediterranean backgrounds
Pain Ischemic
3 Priority Interventions for Sickle Cell Anemia Oxygen Fluids – IV and PO Pain Management
What is sickle cell disease (anemia) A blood disorder in which the red blood cells are sickle shaped and are unable to move through blood vessels smoothly.
Sickled cells have a shorter life span b/c they are more fragile, causing a deficiency in hemoglobin-
Is sickle cell disease a genetic disorder? YES It's a genetic disorder caused by inheriting a mutated gene that codes for the protein hemoglobin.
How is anemia diagnosed? (1) microscopically looking at the blood for sickle shaped blood cells or (2) performing a hematocrit test (measures the percentage of the volume of whole blood that is made up of red blood cells) - low numbers means sickle cell
What are some of the symptoms of SCD? episodes of severe pain in joints, chest, and abdomen (crises) swelling in hands and feet fatigue red/yellow eyes infection shortness of breath
How does having SCD affect daily life? Loss of spleen, higher risk of stroke, shortness of breath, anemia (because cells die faster), pain (because of clots)
Some treatment options for patients w/ SCD -Medications such as folic acid supplements, antibiotics, hydroxyurea -Blood transfusions: receive blood from other individuals to reduce the amount of sickle cells -Bone marrow transplants
Why does a cell become sickled? mutation in the protein sequence
Function of platelets (thrombocytes) Help with blood clotting by gathering at bleeding site and clumping together.
Function of white blood cells (leukocytes) Defends the body against infection by producing antibodies, which eat foreign substances or dead cells. Increase in # when infection is present.
White blood cells Largest of blood cells
Function of red blood cells (erythrocytes) Contains hemoglobin, a protein that enables it to carry oxygen from lungs to tissues. Also carries carbon dioxide away from tissues and back to lungs.
Function of plasma Helps maintain homeostatic balance. Transports substances such as hormones and nutrients. Allows muscles and nerves to function. Helps a little w/ blood clotting.
What are the components of blood? Plasma Red Blood Cells (Erythrocytes) White Blood Cells (Leukocytes) Platelets (Thrombocytes)
Why does the sickling of RBC's cause health problems? The sickle shaped cells do not move smoothly through blood vessels causing clots The cells also die quicker, causing low oxygen levels due to less hemoglobin
What is sickle cell Disease? A genetic disorder based on a single point mutation in which RBC's take the shape of a sickle cell
How do sickle-shaped red blood cells lead to decreased oxygen flow to the blood? There aren't enough healthy RBC's to carry oxygen throughout the body & sickle shaped cells clot easier
What are some struggles with sickle cell anemia? Bone marrow transplant Joint pains Crises Tons of medicine Blood clots Breathing problems
Anemia A condition in which the blood is deficient in red blood cells, in hemoglobin, or in total volume.
How is anemia diagnosed? complete blood cell
Created by: bolenrocks
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