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CSCE 101

Computer Science Final Exam

Internet A network of networks
Throughput The average rate of successful message delivery over a communication channel
Bandwidth A measure of available or consumed data
What are the three types of cables, in order from cheapest to most expensive/ smallest to largest bandwidth? Twisted-Pair, Coax, Fiber Optic
Node (Host) Any addressable device attached to a network
Protocol A set of rules that defines how data is formatted and processed on a network
Web server A computer dedicated to responding to requests for web pages
LAN Local Area Network, small network set up in a local area, such as a home network
WAN Wide Area Network, covers more distance than LAN
MAN Metropolitan Area Network, network covers an entire city
Ring Topology A LAN configuration in which all nodes are connected in a closed loop
Star Topology A LAN configuration in which a central node controls all message traffic
Bus Topology A LAN configuration in which all nodes share a common line
Ethernet The industry-standard for LANs, based on the bus topology
Gateway A node that handles communication between its LAN and other networks
Internet backbone A set of high speed networks, owned by internet service providers, that carry internet traffic
Packet A unit of data sent across a network
Packet switching Packets are individually routed to their destination and then reassembled
Interoperability The ability of software and hardware on multiple machines and from multiple commercial vendors to communicate, main goal of networks
TCP Transmission Control Protocol, the network protocol that breaks messages into packets, reassembles them at the destination and takes care of any errors
IP Internet protocol, the network protocol that deals with the routing of packets through interconnected networks to the final destination
TCP/IP A suite of protocols and programs that support low-level network communication
UDP User Datagram Protocol, an alternative to TCP that achieves higher transmission speeds at the cost of reliability
When is UDP useful? When streaming audio or video, because you can afford to lose packets
When is TCP useful? When sending anything that is 'data sensitive,' such as an email
Firewall A gateway machine and its software that protects a network by filtering traffic it allows
What is the biggest issue with networks? Security
Hostname A name made up of words separated by dots that uniquely identifies a computer on the Internet, each hostname corresponds to a particular IP address
IP address An address made up of four numeric values separated by dots that uniquely identifies a computer on the Internet
DNS Domain Name System, translates the hostname (i.e. google.com) into an IP address (i.e. to retrieve a web page.
Router An electronic device used to connect two or more computers or other electronic devices to each other and usually the Internet, by wire or radio signals
Repeater An electronic device that receives a signal and retransmits it at a higher level and/or higher power, or onto the other side of a wall, hill, etc, long-distance messages must be repeated
What are some top-level domains? .com, .net, .org, .edu, .gov
Commercial software Computer software that is produced for sale or that serves commercial purposes
Proprietary software Computer software with restrictions on use or private modification, or with restrictions judged to be excessive on copying or publishing of modified or unmodified versions
Open source software Computer software for which the source code and other certain rights normally reserved for copyright holders are open to the public
What are some examples of open source software? Mozilla Firefox (browser), Google Chrome (browser), GNU/Linux (OS), Songbird (music player), Notepad ++ (super notepad)
System software Enables application software to interact with the computer and manages the computer's resources
Operating system The principle component of system software, made up of the master system of programs that manage the basic operations of the computer
What are the 5 main functions of the OS? CPU scheduling, memory management, process management, file management, security management
Defragmenter As you save/delete files, drive becomes fragmented which makes it run slower, defragmenter finds all scattered files on a hard disk and reorganizes them, so only one spin is needed to retrieve files
What are some common Operating Systems? MAC OS, windows, Linux
Can you run more than one OS on the same computer? Yes, but not at the same time
Booting The process of loading the Operating System onto the computer's main memory
What is the difference between Warm Boot and Cold Boot? Which one is faster? Cold boot involves the start-up of a computer from a powered-down, or off, state. Warm boot involves restarting the computer via the operating system.Warm boot is faster because it doesn't have to go through the series of diagnostic checks like cold boot
Process A process is a program in execution
What are the 5 process states? New, Ready, Waiting, Running, Terminated
CPU scheduling How the Operating System decides which process to run first and in what order to run them
First-come first-served (FCFS) Processes are moved to the CPU in the order in which they first arrive in the ready state, easy to implement but doesn't take into account the service time required for each process
Shortest job next (SJN) All of the processes in the ready state are examined and the one with the smallest service time is dispatched, good because should have short turnaround, con for processes with long service times
Round Robin CPU scheduling that distributes processing time equally among all ready processes, while continuously rotating, probably the most fair CPU scheduling
RAM Random Access Memory, stores programs in execution, much faster than hard drive, flash drive, etc, volatile, meaning it clears when you lose power or shut down the computer
ROM Read Only Memory, hard drive where all programs on your computer are stored until needed, and items stay stored hear until you need them, type of nonvolatile memory
Volatile memory Date is lost on reboot, RAM memory is an example
Nonvolatile memory All data that is stored in this type of memory will retain when computer is shutdown, ROM is an example
Cache Random access memory (RAM) that a computer microprocessor can access more quickly than it can access regular RAM, sometimes described in levels of closeness and availability to the microprocessor (level 1 cache, level 2 cache)
CMOS Stores minor, but important details for your computer, even when it's powered down (bios, date, etc.)
Secondary storage various techniques and devices for storing large amounts of data such as flash drives, dvd, cd-rom, and unlike memory, it is nonvolatile because devices retain data even when computer is turned off
Artificial Intelligence The study of computer systems that model and apply the intelligence of the human mind with the goal being for computers to duplicate humans in how they work
Alan Turing British mathematician who developed the Turing test
Turing Test A behavioral approach to determining whether a computer system is intelligent
Expert systems Computer systems that embody the knowledge of human experts
Knowledge Representation General techniques used to represent human knowledge
Neural Network Computer Systems that mimic the processing of the human brain
Natural language processing The challenge of processing languages that humans use to communicate, in the way that humans use them to communicate with
Robotics The study of robots
What are some of the applications of robotics? Can send robots to places where humans cannot go, such as the "Mars rovers" or send them to places where it is unsafe for humans to go and use them as bomb defusers
What are some of the challenges with robotics? There are lots of decisions that humans make daily and don't even think about, for a robot even the simplest of decisions have to be programmed
Search tree A structure that represents alternatives in situations, such as game playing
Depth-first search Searching down the parts of a tree prior to searching across levels
Breadth-first search Searching across levels of a tree, prior to searching down specific paths
Virus A "deviant" program, stored on a computer drive, that can cause unexpected and often undesirable effects, such as destroying or corrupting data
Worm A program that copies itself repeatedly into a computer's memory or onto a disk drive
Anti-virus software Scans a computer's hard disk, floppy disks, and main memory to detect viruses and destroy them
Types of errors/accidents that can happen to a computer Human errors, software errors, procedural errors, natural hazards, electromechanical errors, "dirty data" problems
Types of crimes against computers theft of hardware, theft of software and data, theft of time and services, theft of information, crimes of malice and destruction, internet-related attacks: phishing, blackmail, scams
Types of computer criminals Hackers, crackers, terrorists, employees (insiders), outside partners, professional criminals, spies
Network Scanners A computer break-in method used to probe a network for security holes, open-doors, and general information about systems
Buffer overflows A computer break-in method using a long input to overflow memory space assigned to a target program and cause the execution of a harmful code
Cryptography The field of study related to encoded information
Encryption The process of converting plaintext into ciphertext
Key One or more fields of a database that uniquely identifies it among all other records in the table
Created by: papadopu