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Non-fermentative GNB

QuestionAnswer
Which organisms are considered non fermenters P. aeruginosa, Burkholderia, Stenotrophomonas, Acinetobacter & Moraxella
What is the Gram stain result for the nonfermenters? Gram negative bacilli
What is the Gram stain result for Campylobacter & Helicobacter? Gram negative rods; S-shape, spirals, & seagull wings
What is the Gram stain result for Vibro? Gram negative rods; some may be curved
What is the Gram stain result for Gardnerella vaginalis? Gram-variable coccobacilli
What is the Gram stain result for Cardiobacterium hominis? Gram negative rods in rosettes
What is the Gram stain result for Bacteroides fragilis? Gram negative rods
What is the Gram stain result for Prevotella? Gram negative rods
What is the Gram stain result for Porphyromonas? Gram negative rods
What is the Gram stain result for Peptostreptococcus? Gram positive cocci
What is the Gram stain result for Veillonella? Gram negative cocci
What is the Gram stain result for Propionibacterium? Gram positive rods; looks like Chinese letters
What is the Gram stain result for Actinomyces? Gram positive branching rods
What is the Gram stain result for Eubacterium & Bifidobacterium? Gram positive rods
What is the Gram stain result for Clostridium species? Gram positive rods with spores
What is the Gram stain result for Clostridium perfringens? Gram positive rods, box-car shaped
Which organisms are associated with water? Aeromonas, Legionella (airborne/respiratory), Vibrio, & P. aeruginosa
Which organisms are associated with dogs &/or cats? B. henselae, Pasteurella, & Capnocytophaga canimorsus/cynodegmi
Which organism is found in animal urine? Leptospira
Which organisms are associated with a variety of animals other that cats & dogs? Campylobacter, Brucella, Franciscella, & Coxiella
Which organisms are associated with ticks? Rickettsia, Ehrlichia, Anaplasma, & Borrelia burgdorferi
Which organism is associated with lice? Borrelia recurrentis
What is the natural habitat for most of the anaerobes? Near human mucosal surfaces (GI tract, RT, genital tract & skin)
HACEK mnemonic stands for the following organisms: Haemophilus species, especially aphrophilus, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, _________________, ________________ & ___________________ . Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens, & Kingella species
What is the natural habitat for the HACEK organisms? Human oral flora
What is the natural habitat for Capnocytophaga species (not C. canimorsus/cyndoegmi)? Human oral flora
Although Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans is an aerobic organism, it is often found in association with an anerobic organism. What is that MO? Actinomyces israelii
What are the names of the anaerobic GNBs? Bacteroides, Prevotella, Porphyromonas, & Fusobacterium
What is the name of the anaerobic GPC? Peptostreptococcus anaerobius
What is the name of the anaerobic GNC? Veillonella
What is the name of the anaerobic, small GPB (Chinese lettering)? Propionibacterium acnes
What is the name of the anaerobic, branching GPB? Actinomyces
Besides Clostridium what other anaerobic GPB are described in the notes? Eubacterium & Bifidobacterium
What is the name of the anaerobic, box-car GPB? Clostridium perfringens
What is the name of the anaerobic, spore forming GPB? Clostridium
Which organisms need a microaerobic atmosphere for growth? Campylobacter & Helicobacter
Name the organism that causes gastric ulcers. Helicobacteria pylori
Name the organism associated with bacteremia in immunocompromised patients. Campylobacter fetus subsp fetus
What disease is usually associated with Campylobacter jejuni & Campylobacter coli? Diarrhea
Name the organism that causes primary atypical pneumoniae. Mycoplasma pneumoniae
Mycoplasma ____________ is associated with genital tract infections. Mycoplasma hominis
Which organism causes swimmer's ear? Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Which organism causes cepacia syndrome? Burkholderia cepacia
Which organism causes cholera? Vibro cholerae
Which organism causes Pontiac fever & Legionnaire's disease? Legionella species, typically pneumophila
Which organism causes Q fever Coxiella burnetii
Which organism causes trench fever, bacteremia, bacillary angiomatosis? Bartonella quintana
Which organism causes cat scratch fever, bacteremia, bacillary angiomatosis? Bartonella henselae
Which organism causes undulant fever? Brucella
Which organism causes joint infections in young children? Kingella kingae
Which organism causes rabbit fever? Franciscella tularensis
Which organisms cause rat bite fever? Spirillium minor & Streptobacillus moniliformis
What disease is associated with the HACEK group? Endocarditis
Which organism causes relapsing fever? Borrelia recurrentis
Which organism causes Lyme disease? Borrelia burgdorferi
Which organism causes trachoma? Chlamydia trachomatis
Name the diseases caused by Chlamydia trachomatis that effect newborns Inclusion conjunctivitis & neonatal pneumonia
Name the STD caused by Chlamydia trachomatis that produces a regional lymphadenopathy (hint: the disease is rarely seen in the U.S.). Lymphogranuloma venereum
What are the sexual transmitted diseases caused by Chlamydia trachomatis that are commonly seen in the U.S Cervicitis, PID, & urethritis
Name the disease caused by Ureaplasma. Urethritis
Which organism causes whooping cough? Bordetella pertussis
Which organism is associated with bacterial vaginosis? Gardnerella vaginalis
Which organism causes syphilis? Treponema pallidum
Which organism causes Rock Mountain spotted fever? Rickettsia rickettsii
Which organism causes human monocytic ehrlichiosis? Ehrlichia chaffeensis
Which organism causes human granulocyte anaplasmosis? Anaplasma phagocytophilum
Which organism causes gas gangrene & septicemia? Clostridium perfringens
Which organism causes antibiotic associated diarrhea & pesudomembranous colitis? Clostridium difficile
The isolation of Clostridium septicum from a blood culture is often associated with ____________ _____________ . Underlying malignancy
Name two organisms associated with cystic fibrosis patients. Bulkholderia cepacia & mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Vibrio is usually transmitted through contaminated ________ & _________. Water & seafood
Patients with underlying liver disease are especially at risk if infected with _________ ___________. Vibrio vulnificus
How should specimens for Chlamydia culture be transported? On wet ice
Name two aerobic organisms that require special transport media. Bordetella & Chlamydia
Describe the decontamination method used for Legionella specimens. Specimen + acid wash solution, left at RT for few minutes, then inoculated
Specimens requesting Chamydia trachomatis isolation & identification should contain __________ cells. Epithelial
Name four organisms that are detected by DFA. Legionella, Francisella, Chlamydia trachomatis, & Rickettsia rickettsii
Legionella pneumophila is frequently detected in urine using ___________ __________ . Antigen tests
To isolate Brucella, blood cultures & bone marrows are hold for ___ days when nonautomated BC systems are utilized; ____ days for automated BC systems. The specimens are subcultured ________ to BAP & CHOC and held for 1 week. 30; 10 & weekly
What is the method of choice for detecting Bordetella & Ehrlichia/Anaplasma? PCR
How are Clostridium difficile and Clostridium botulinum infections usually diagnosed? Toxin detection methods
What test should be performed after biochemically identifying Vibrio cholerae? Serogroup to detemine if 01 or 0139
Which organism causes a rise in cold agglutinins? Mycoplasma pneumoniae
Which organisms can be identified by using darkfield microscopy? Treponema pallidum & Spirillium minus
Which organism is associated with the production of clue cells in vaginal specimens? Gardnerella vaginalis
Which organisms are considered laboratory hazards? Brucella & Francisella
Which organisms are identified presumptively and then referred to the Arkansas Health Department? Brucella & Francisella
What are the selective & differential media used to isolate Burkholderia cepacia & how do the colonies appear on the agars? BCSA & OFPBL agars - produce yellow colonies
What are the selective media used to isolate Campylobacter jejuni/coli? At what temperature are the media incubated? Campy BAP or Skirrow agar; incubate at 42
What is the selective & differential medium used to isolate Vibrio? TCBS agar
What is the medium used to isolate Legionella? BCYE
What does BCYE contain that is required for Legionella growth? Cysteine & iron
What are the media used to isolate Bordetella? Bordet-Gengou & charcoal blood agar (Regan-Lowe)
What is the selective & differential medium used to isolate Clostridium difficile? CCFA
What are the media used to isolate Gardnerella vaginalis? V agar or HBT agar
What is the medium used to isolate Leptospira? Fletcher's agar
What is the method of choice for detecting Chlamydia trachomatis in adults? NAAT
\If sexual abuse is suspected in a child, what is the method of choice for detecting Chlamydia trachomatis? Culture; involves shell vial w/ McCoy cells
What is the recommanded medium used to isolate Francisella tularensis? Glucose-cysteine blood agar
What amino acid has to be present in media to isolate Francisella tularensis? Cystine or cysteine
What is the selective & differential medium used to isolate Bacteroides & Prevotella (aids in detecting pigmented Prevotella)? LKV or KVLB
What is the medium used to culture Streptobacillus moniliformis? Media w/ body fluids (serum, ascites fluid, blood)
What distinguishes Streptobacillus moniliformis from Spirillium minus? Streptobacillus is culturable; Spirillium is not
What is the anaerobic selective medium that inhibits facultative GNBs but allows the growth of facultative GPC & rods and as well as most anaerobes? PEA-K
What is the selective & differential medium used to isolate & presumptive ID Bacteroides fragilis group? Bacteroides bile esculin agar (BBE)
How does Bacteroides fragilis group appear on BBE? Black
How does Bordetella pertussia appear on Bordet-Gengou Mercury drops
How do Vibrio cholerae/alginolyticus & Vibrio vulnificus/parahaemolyticus appear on TCBS? V. cholerae/alginolyticus = yellow (ferment sucrose); others are blue-green
What type of hemolysis is produced by Gardnerella on V agar or HBT agar? What type of hemolysis is produced on BAP? Beta hemolysis on human blood; gamma hemolysis on BAP
How does Clostridium difficile appear on CCFA? Yellow colonies
Which organisms need a CO2 atmosphere for growth? HACEK group, Capnocytophaga & Brucella
Do all Campylobacter species require 42 for growth? No, C. fetus grows at 37
What two methods are used to detect Chlamydia trachomatis in shell vials? Iodine stain for glycogen inclusion or DFA
What organisms are used to perform the reverse CAMP test? Known Gp B strep & suspected Clostridium perfringens isolate
What does a positive lecithinase look like? Opaque zone surrounding colonies
What does a positive lipase look like? Oil on water
Which reagent is used to perform the spot indole test Paradimethylaminocinnamaldehyde
Which reagents are used to perform the nitrate test? Sulfanilic acid & dimethyl-alpha-naphthylamine
The Weyant & Associates charts divides the nonfermentors into 8 groups based on _______, ________, ________, & _________. OF glucose, oxidase reaction, growth on MAC & motility
What is the appearance of nonfermenters on MAC/EMB? Lactose negative - colorless
What type of reaction is expected when an enteric is inoculated to OF glucose media? Yellow in both tubes; open & closed (oil)
What type of reaction is expected when Moraxella or Acinetobacter is inoculated to OF glucose media? Both tubes are blue-green; open & closed (oil)
How does Pseudomonas aeruginosa use glucose? Can only use in presence of oxygen
What type of nitrate reaction is produced by enterics? Positive; after addition of reagents A & B (nitrate to nitrite)
What type of nitrate reaction is produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa Positive; no color change after addition of zinc (nitrate to nitrogen
What type of nitrate reaction is produced by Acinetobacter? Negative; red after addition of zinc (can not reduce nitrate)
What is the identification of the following organism: pyocyanin production; oxidase + growth at 42; TSI = K/K Pseudomonas aeruginosa
What is the identification of the following organism: GPC, anaerobe SPS = S Peptostreptococcus anaerobius
What is the identification of the following organism: GNB, anaerobe K, V, C & Bile = R BBE = black Bacteroides fragilis
What is the identification of the following organism: Clue cells on wet mount Beta-hemolytic on HBT Starch + Garnerella vaginalis
What is the identification of the following organism: Double zone of hemolysis Reverse CAMP = +; lecithinase = + Nagler = + Clostridium perfringens
What is the identification of the following organism: GNB, S shapes & gull wings Grows on BAP & CHOC at 37 Rapid urease = + Helicobacter pylori
Name two nonfermentors that are oxidase negative Acinetobacter & Stenotrophomonas
Burkholderia, Moraxella, Kingella, & Eikenella are all oxidase positive. Name other organisms that are oxidase positive Vibrio, Campy/Helico, Aeromonas, & Plesiomonas (also Pseudomonas)
Most of the vibrios are halophilic (require salt for growth). Which vibrio is nonhalophilic? Vibrio cholerae
Which organism appears green on TSA and why? Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces pyocyanin
Which organism smells like bleach? Eikenella corrodens
Which organism produces mercury drop colonies? Bordetella
Which organism pits the agar? Eikenella corrodens
Which organism produces molar tooth colonies? Actinomyces
Which organism produces sulfur granules? Actinomyces
Which organism produces a double zone of hemolysis? Clostridium perfringens
Which organisms fluorescence red? Prevotella, Porphyromonas, & Veillonella
Which organism smells like corn taco, grapes, or new shoes? Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Which organism smells fruity? Myroides odoratum (formally a part of Favobacterium)
Which organisms produce yellow pigment? Flavobacteria & Capnocytophaga
Which organisms produce black pigment? Prevotella & Porphyromonas (same ones that fluoresce red w/ UV light)
Which organisms move by "darting"? Vibrio cholerae & Campylobacter
Which organism is multi-resistant but can be treated with SXT (trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole)? Stenotrophomonas maltophilia
Which organism is a GNB and sensitive to penicillin? Moraxella
Which organism produces fried-egg colonies? Mycoplasma
Which organism is called anaerobic diphtheroids? Propionibacterium
Which organism produces rice-water stool? Vibrio cholerae
What is the identification of the following organism: GPB (Chinese letters); anaerobe indole = +; catalase = + Propionibacterium acnes
How long should anaerobe jars/bags be held before reading the plates? 48 hours
How long are cultures held in the anaerobic chamber before they are read They can be read after 18-24 hours of incubation.
How often should the catalyst be changed if using the older anaerobe jars? Use fresh catalyst with each use; reactive by heating at 160 for two hours
What are the indicators that are used in anaerobic jars/chamber? Methylene blue (blue in O2) & resazurin (pink in O2)
How long does it take to achieve anaerobic conditions in the anaerobic jars? How long does it take for the indicator to turn white? 1-2 hours to achieve ANA conditions; 3-4 hours for the indicator to turn
How does the tech determine he/she is working with an anaerobe? Subculture to CHOC (incubate CO2) & ANA-BAP (incubate ANA)
What type of loop should be used when working with anaerobes? Platinum, stainless steel, or sterile wooden sticks
What type of specimens are acceptable for anaerobic cultures? Aspirates & tissues; swabs are least desirable
Thoat/nasopharyngeal/sputum and GI (feces or bowel contents) specimens are unacceptable for anaerobic cultures. What other specimens are unacceptable for anaerobic cultures? Voided urine & vaginal/cervical swabs
A doctor comes to the micro lab to pick-up anaerobic transport media. The anaerobe media has a pink color. It is acceptable for use? NO, the pink color indicates the media contains O2
Which test has been considered the gold standard for detecting Clostridium difficile toxin? Which test is becoming the gold standard? Cytotoxicity test; real time PCR
Are other tests besides the cytotoxicity test used to detect Clostridium difficile toxin? Yes - LA & EIA
Interpret the following cytotoxicity test results: Stool + antitoxin + tissue cells = No CPE Stool + tissue cells = No CPE No C. difficile toxin present
Interpret the following cytotoxicity test results: Stool + antitoxin + tissue cells = No CPE Stool + tissue cells = CPE C. difficile toxin present
What is the natural habitat for Chromobacterium violaceum? Soil & water
What tests can be determined from egg yolk agar? Lecithinase, lipase & proteolysis
Some organisms are not commonly cultured, but are detected by using serological methods. What are these organisms? Francisella, Brucella, Heliobacter, Coxiella, & Bartonella
The laboratory receives a shipment of thioglycollate (THIO) with vitamin K & hemin. Can the THIOs be used as soon as they are received? No, the THIOs have to be boiled before use
Which two organisms appear as enterics on EMB & MAC, are oxidase positive, and ferment glucose? (some species can also ferment lactose) Aeromonas & Plesiomonas
What types of diseases are associated with Aeromonas species? Extraintestinal and intestinal
What type of disease is associated with Plesiomonas shigelloides? Intestinal are most common - diarrhea
Which organism is associated with human bites &/or fist fights? Eikenella corrodens
Two organisms that were previously in the Chlamydia genus are now in a genus called Chlamydophila? What are these organisms and what diseases do they cause? C. pneumoniae causes pneumonia; C. psittaci causes ornithosis or parrot fever
Which organisms are associated with rats? Spirillium minor & Streptobacillus moniliformis
Created by: Mwortman
 

 



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