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Unit 8 Pathophys

Endocrine Alterations - Learning Objectives

What are the mechanisms of hormonal alterations? Hypersecretion or hyposecretion of various hormones; target cells failing to respond to hormones
What are the causes of hypersecretion or hyposecretion of various hormones? Faulty feedback system, dysfunction of an endocrine gland, altered metabolism of hormones, or hormones are produced by nonendocrine tissues causing elevated levels
What do alpha cells secrete? Glucagon
What do beta cells secrete? Insulin
Which hormone promotes glucose uptake (lowers glucose level in the blood)? Insulin
Which hormone increases blood glucose by stimulating muscle glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis and adipose tissue lipolysis? Glucagon
What are classic symptoms of Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes mellitus? Polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia
How do cells compensate when they are not receiving glucose (due to insulin deficiency)? Lack of glucose in cells results in catabolism of fats and proteins.
What usually results from cells catabolizing fats and proteins when they lack glucose? Leads to excessive amounts of fatty acids and their metabolites, known as ketones, in the blood (ketoacidosis). Diabetic ketoacidosis can result and is life-threatening.
What type of diabetes has the possible complication of diabetic ketoacidosis? Type 1
What type of diabetes does hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic syndrome most often occur in? Type 2
The Somogyi effect is thought to be caused by what? Too much medication in the system at the wrong time (counterregulatory hormones are released in response to detected hypoglycemia, resulting in hyperglycemia).
Describe the Dawn Phenomenon. Early morning rise in blood glucose concentration with no hypoglycemia during the night. It is related to nocturnal elevations of growth hormone (GH), which decreases metabolism of glucose.
What are chronic complications of diabetes mellitus? Hyperglycemia, infection, diabetic neuropathies, microvascular disease, macrovascular disease
What A1C level on two separates test indicates diabetes? 6.5% or higher
Diagnosis of hyperglycemia is made when...? Hyperglycemia > 100 g/dl (fasting and 2h postprandial); A1C level of 6.5% or higher on two separate tests
How is Type 2 diabetes treated? Diet, exercise, medication, reduce alcohol consumption, reduce stress
What are complications of type 2 diabetes? Neuropathy, nephropathy, heart and blood vessel disease, retinopathy, skin problems, osteoporosis
Manifestations of diabetes include... Recurrent infections, slow-healing sores, paresthesias (numbing, tingling), polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, weight loss, fatigue, blurred vision
What type of diabetes occurs when the body does not produce enough insulin or the cells ignore the insulin? Type 2 diabetes
What are some risk factors for Type 2 diabetes mellitus? Obesity (especially around the abdomen), inactivity, family history, race, female, age, prediabetes, gestational diabetes, and metabolic syndrome, blood pressure > 130/85, glucose > 100 gm/dl fasting), and HDL <50 mg/dl
Created by: fambrough