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IntroPsych-Chp 10

Developmental Psychology

TermDefinition
Developmental Psychology The field of psychology that focuses on development across the life span.
Nature Biology
Nurture Environment
Maturation Systematic Physical growth of the body, including the nervous system.
Early Childhood is the "formative period"
Critical period the sensitive period which imprinting occurs. biologically determined period in the life of some animals durning which certain forms of learning can take place most easily.
Early Experiences Experiences occurring very early in development, believed by some to have lasting effects.
Stages one of several time periods in development that is qualitatively distinct from the periods that come before and after.
Stage Theorists believe that all children must pass through the same qualitatively different stages in the same order. Stages are believed to be biologically programmed to unfold in a fixed sequence in all normal persons.
Piaget A Stage Theorist - Development of cognition in children - 4 major stages of cognitive development
Sensorimotor Stage (Piaget) Birth - 2 years child deals w/reality in terms of sensations & motor movements @ this stage unable to reason in mental symbols.
Preoperational Stage (Piaget) 2-7 years Cognitive development Child capable of symbolic thought often 'illogical' in ways that revel the unique nature of preoperational cognition
Concrete Operational Stage (Piaget) 7-11 years middle childhood ability to reason like an adult, except for reasoning about abstract concepts such as justice, infinity or meaning of life
Formal Operational Stage (Piaget) 11 Years on end of the stage of child hood, most progressed to full adult cognition, including the ability to reason using abstract concepts.
Kohlberg's Theory Moral development is concerned w/the logical process of carving at answers to moral dilemmas. Concluded we pass through 3 major levels of development of moral reasoning: Premoral Level Conventional Level Principled Level
Premoral level Children have no sense of morality as adults understand it Make moral judgements to obtain rewards or avoid punishment
Conventional level Make moral decisions basis of what they think others will think of them, particularly parents and other persons of authority. Make moral decisions based on rules
Principled Level Judge actions on basis of ethical principles rather than consequences to us. based on one's principles of morality, even if differs from rules of the larger community
Gillian's Theory of Moral development suggested Kohlbergs theory isn't alway accurate for girls. Argues female go through diff.stages. progress form self-interest towards a balanced concern for welfare of self & others.Female moral reason centers on needs of people rather than abstract
Gilligans Stage Theory of Moral Development Morality as individual survival Morality as Self-Sacrifice Morality as Equality
Erikson's stage theory of personality development Stages are turning points/CRISES, the outcome will partly determine course of future personality development. focuses on the person's developing relationships w/others in the social world.
Erikson's stage 0-1 yrs Basic trust vs Mistrust
Erikson's stage 1-3 yrs Autonomy vs shame and doubt
Erikson's stage 3-5 yrs Initiative vs guilt
Eriksons stage 5-11 yrs Industry vs Inferiority
Erikson's stage 11-18 yrs Identity vs role confusion
Erikson's stage 18-40 Intimacy vs isolation
Erikson's stage 40-65 Generativity vs stagnation
Erikson's stage 65-years on Integrity vs dispair
Neonatal period first two weeks of live following birth
Infancy 2 weeks to 2 years
Object Permanence the understanding that objects continue to exist when they are not in view. emerges between the ages of 6 and 9 months
Telegraphic speech the abbreviated speech of a 2 yr old
Early Childhood 2 to 7 years = Piaget's theory preoperational stage
Egocentric self oriented quality in the thinking of preoperational children
Animism the egocentric belief of preoperational children that inanimate objects are alive as they are.
Concrete Operational Stage Understands reversibility concept of conservation understood more decentered (able to think of more than one thing at a time) Friendship grps/'cliques' emerge
Adolescence the period the onset of puberty until beginning of adulthood rapid physical growth & change & heightening of sex/romantic interest peers are more important cable of reasoning g in abstractions
Primary sex Characteristics Ovulation & menstruation in females Production of Sperm Males
secondary sex characteristics development of breasts & hips & body hair = Females growth of testes, broad shoulders, lower voice, growth of penis & facial hair & body hair=males
Most important physical change in adolescence the Brain.--structure & organization of limbic system & frontal lobes change rapidly from childhood to adolescence. in ways that promote risk taking, novelty seeking & emotional response to stress.
Adolescent egocentrism (Elkind) Imaginary audience Personal Fable Hypocrisy Pseudostupidity
Fluid Intelligence solving logical problems. on average fluid intelligence declines by a 1/3 by the late 80s
Crystallized intelligence knowledge & skills declines very slowly after 30s
Created by: edarr