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Speech Therapy

Parts of the Brain

Cerebral connections are established through what 2 types of fibers? Association Fibers and Commisural Fibers have this function
Definition of arcuate fasiculus? Type of association fiber that consists of groups of fibers that form association tracts between areas, within lobes, and between lobes in the same hemisphere.
Definition of association fibers? Cerebral connection fibers which connect areas within the same hemisphere.
Definition of commissural Fibers? Cerebral connection fibers that connect an area in one hemisphere to an area in the other hemisphere.
Which areas of the brain are connected by arcuate fasciculus fibers? Broca's Area and Wernicke's Area are connected by these fibers.
What is Broca's Area responsible for? Responsible for motor planning/programming for speech production; sends plan to pre-central gyrus
What is Wernicke's Area responsible for? 1) Language formulation 2) Language comprehension and generation of linguistic thought
What is the largest commissural fiber? The corpus callosum is the largest of this type of fiber
What are the subcortical structures and what are they responsible for? the Limbic System, and the Basal Nuclei; act as relay stations between Broca’s Area and Wernicke’s area; connections to and from the thalamus and other parts of the Perisylvian zone
What are the major structures of the limbic system? Hippocampus, Fornix, and the Cingulate Gyrus
What is the function of the hippocampus? Limbic system structure responsible for getting newly learned information into long-term storage.
What is the function of the fornix? Limbic system structure responsible for memory and learning; assistant to other limbic areas
What is the function of the cingulate gyrus? Limbic system structure responsible for memory, learning, emotion involved in outbursts; in synch with adrenal glands; (fuels fight-or-flight response); reason why hard to calm down after getting worked up.
What is the overall function of the limbic system Subcortical structure primarily involved with emotion, memory; strong connection with frontal lobe
What is the overall function of the basal nuclei? Subcortical structure that plays a significant role in motor behavior; stops producing dopamine in Parkinson’s patients.
What are the major structures of the basal nuclei? Caudate nucleus, putmen, and the globus pallidus
What is the function of the caudate nucleus? Basil nuclei structure responsible for smooth motor learning, learning and memory; Connected to the frontal lobe
What is the function of the putamen? Basil nuclei structure involved in motor learning and motor performance; helpful in regulating movement like writing, talking; involved in responses of contempt and disgust
What is the function of the globus pallidus? Basil nuclei structure involved in memory, learning, thought; assists putamen; Strong connection to frontal lobe
Where is the cerebellum located? Located posteriorly & at the base of the cerebrum. It is overlapped by the occipital lobe.
What are the major functions of the cerebellum? Coordinates rapid and precise movements, including those used in speech; Smoothes out or “grades” speech flow; aids in proprioception (awareness of body position in space) by coordinating info from inner ear, vision, and receptors in joints.
Name the 3 lobes of the cerebellum [FAP] Flocculonodular lobe, Anterior lobe, posterior lobe.
What are the peduncles? Part of the brainstem; Connects the cerebellum to the brainstem. All information that moves in/out of the cerebellum crosses through the peduncles (AKA Pons also “Feet.”)
What is the brainstem and where is it located? Series of structures that are an upward extension of the spinal cord. Located near the hemispheres at midline
True or False: the brainstem is a more primitive part of the brain that is NOT involved in higher level processing or “thinking.” True: this structure of the CNS is the more primitive part of the brain that is NOT involved in higher level processing or “thinking.”
What are the parts of the brainstem? [Most Marvelous People Hate Those Dukies] Medulla oblongata, Mesencephalon, Pons, Hypothalamus, Thalamus, Diencephalon
What is the medulla oblongota? Most inferior portion of the brainstem; contains nuclei for cranial nerves that control phonation, velopharyngeal closure, swallowing, and articulation.
What structures are contained within the medulla oblongota? Ascending/descending motor and sensory tracts, most cranial nerve nuclei, olivary nuclei, inferior cerebellar peduncles, and pyramids
What are the olivary nuclei? Important stage in the ascending auditory pathway
What are the inferior cerebellar peduncles? Connect medulla to the cerebellum
What is the function of the pyramids? Part of the brainstem at which motor pathways from motor cortex from one side of the brain travel up to PNS to decussate and inervate the opposite side of the body; sensory fibers decussate here too
What are the landmarks of the medulla oblongata? median fissure and pyramids are landmarks of this structure
What is the pons? Name (means “bridge”): Rounded structure that is superior to the medulla oblongata; Serves as a bridge to the cerebellum; Contains the nuclei for cranial nerve V: Trigeminal
What is the Mesencephalon? (AKA Midbrain): Narrowest part of the brain stem
What does the mesencephalon contain? the inferior colliculi and the superior colliculi are housed in this portion of the brainstem
What are the inferior colliculi? portion of the mesencephalon which acts as a relay station for the ascending auditory pathway
What are the superior colliculi? portion of the mesencephalon which acts as a relay station for the visual pathway
What is the diencephalon and what is it responsible for? Most superior part of brain stem; Deepest part of the brainstem, very near the basal nuclei. Responsible for consciousness ans sensory information EXCEPT for olfaction.
What are the parts of the diencephalon? Thalamus and the hypothalamus
What is the primary function of the thalamus? Primary function is to integrate and organize sensory information & to send the information up to the primary sensory areas of the brain; also regulates consciousness, sleep/wake cycles, levels of alertness, depth levels of coma
Many sensory pathways run to and from the cortex and thalamus EXCEPT for which ones? Olfaction sensory pathways do NOT run to and from these structures
What are the functions of the hypothalamus? Controls some aspects of emotional behavior Regulation of body temperature, food and water intake, and sleep behavior; Exerts neural control over the pituitary gland that controls many bodily functions like blood pressure and cardiac function
Which areas of the brainstem control involuntary respiration? The medulla oblongota and the diencephalon control the involuntary component of this action
What is the location and function of the Angular Gyrus? Location: Occipital lobe; Function: Symbolic integration for reading
What is the location and function of the Supramarginal Gyrus? Location: Anterior to the angular gyrus, curves around the posterior end of the Sylvian fissure; Function: Symbolic integration for reading
What is the location and function of the motor cortex? Location: Precentral gyrus; Function: Activates muscles for speech production
What is the corpus callosum? Large commissural fiber tract; Transmits information between hemispheres
Where is Broca's Area located? Located in the inferior frontal gyrus of the frontal lobe; superior to the Sylvian fissure at the inferior end of the Premotor cortex
Where is Wernicke's Area located? Locatedd in the posterior part of the superior temporal gyrus
With what lobe is the angular gyrus associated? gyrus associated with the occipital lobe
Where is the supramarginal gyrus located? gyrus located anterior to the angular gyrus; curves around the posterior end of the Sylvian fissure
What is the function of the supramarginal gyrus? Very important in writing and symbolic integration for reading
Where are the subcortical structures located? deep to the cerebral cortex
Created by: wyhanes



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